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2018-NOV-09

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Republic of South Africa : RSA
(Pretoria + Cape Town + Bloemfontein)

Republic of South Africa : RSA

Flag or logo since 1994-04-27
Republic of SOUTH AFRICA (en) + Republiek van SUID-AFRIKA (af) + iRiphabhuliki yaseNINGIZIMU AFRIKA (zu) + iRiphabliki yomZANTSI AFRIKA (xh) + Rephaboliki ya AFORIKA BORWA (tn) + iRiphabhulikhi yeNINGIZIMU AFRIKA (ss) + Repabliki ya AFRIKA-BORWA (nso) + Rephaboliki ya AFRIKA BORWA (st) + iRiphabliki yeSEWULA AFRIKA (nr) + Riphabliki ra AFRIKA DZONGA (ts) + Riphabuḽiki ya AFURIKA TSHIPEMBE (ve)
Emblem or Symbol

President Cyril Ramaphosa
(ruler of SOUTH AFRICA since 2018-02-14)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Pretoria + Cape Town + Bloemfontein(Tshwane + Cape Town + Bloemfontein)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Metropole:


SOUTH AFRICA Republic of SOUTH AFRICA  (Pretoria + Cape Town + Bloemfontein)

9 Metropolitan Divisions:

EASTERN CAPE EASTERN CAPE Province  (Bhisho)Local: IPhondo yaMpuma-Koloni : EMPUMA KOLONI (xh) + Provinsie OOS-KAAP (af) + EASTERN CAPE Province (en)  (Bhisho)
FREE STATE FREE STATE Province  (Bloemfontein)Local: Porofensi ya FOREISTATA (st) + VRYSTAAT Provinsie (af) + IPhondo ya FOREISTATA (xh) + FREE STATE Province (en)  (Bloemfontein)
GAUTENG GAUTENG Province  (Johannesburg)Local: Provinsie GAUTENG (af) + Izifundazwe IGAUTENG (zu) + Porofensi tsa GAUTENG (st) + GAUTENG Province (en)  (Johannesburg)
KWAZULU-NATAL KWAZULU-NATAL Province  (Pietermaritzburg)Local: Isifundazwe saKWAZULU-NATAL (zu) + Province of KWAZULU-NATAL (en)  (Pietermaritzburg)
LIMPOPO LIMPOPO Province  (Pietersburg)Local: Porofense ya LIMPOPO (nso) + Xifundzha ya LIMPOPO (ts) + Phurovinsi ya LIMPOPO (ve) + LIMPOPO Province (en)  (Polokwane)
MPUMALANGA MPUMALANGA Province  (Nelspruit)Local: Sifundza seMPUMALANGA (ss) + Isifundazwe saseMPUMALANGA (zu) + Sifundza ye MPUMALANGA (nr) + Provinsie MPUMALANGA (af) + MPUMALANGA Province (en)  (Mbombela)
NORTH-WEST NORTH-WEST Province  (Mafikeng)Local: Diporofinsi ya BOKONE BOPHIRIMA (tn) + NOORDWES Provinsie (af) + NORTH-WEST Province (en)  (Mahikeng)
NORTHERN CAPE NORTHERN CAPE Province  (Kimberley)Local: Provinsie NOORD-KAAP (af) + Diporofinsi ya KAPA BOKONE (tn) + uPhondo yaseMNTLA-KOLONI (xh) + NORTHERN CAPE Province (en)  (Kimberley)
WESTERN CAPE WESTERN CAPE Province  (Cape Town)Local: Provinsie WES-KAAP (af) + IPhondo yaNtshona-Koloni : INTSHONA KOLONI (xh) + WESTERN CAPE Province (en)  (Cape Town)




1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Africa:

GOUGH ISLAND South African Antarctic Station of GOUGH ISLAND  (Gough Island)Local: South African Antarctic Station of GOUGH ISLAND (en)  (Gough Island)

Other notable Territories in Africa:

AMAGASELA Xhosa Chiefdom of AMAGASELA  (Amagasela)Local: Xhosa Chiefdom of AMAGASELA  (Amagasela)
AMAGQUNUKHWEBE AMAGQUNUKHWEBE Xhosa Chiefdom  (Tsholomnqa + Middledrift)Local: GQUNUKHWEBE Chiefdom (en) + Inkosi Enkhulu AMAGQUNUKHWEBE (xh) + hoofmanskap van GQUNUKHWEBE (af)  (Tsholomnqa + Middledrift)
AMAHLUBI AMALHLUBI Chiefdom in Umtshezi Local Municipality  (Estcourt)Local: AMALHLUBI Chiefdom in Umtshezi Local Municipality  (Mtshezi)
AMANTINDE Xhosa Chiefdom of AMANTINDE  (Amantinde)Local: Xhosa Chiefdom of AMANTINDE  (Amantinde)
AMARHARHABE Xhosa Chiefdom of AMARHARHABE  (Dohne)Local: Xhosa Chiefdom of AMARHARHABE  (Döhne)
AMAZIZI AMAZIZI Chiefdom in Engcobo Local Municipality  (Ngqutura)Local: AMAZIZI Chiefdom in Engcobo Local Municipality  (Ngqutura kwaZangashe)
BAFOKENG Royal BAFOKENG Nation  (Phokeng)Local: Royal BAFOKENG Nation  (Phokeng)
BAHURUTSHE OF BOOMOKGATLHA Tswana Chiefdom of BAHURUTSHE OF BOOMOKGATLHA  (Mokgathla)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAHHURUTSHE BA BOOMOKGATLHA  (Mokgathla)
BAHURUTSHE OF GA GOPANE Tswana Chiefdom of BAHURUTSHE OF GA GOPANE  (Gopane)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAHHURUTSHE BA GA GOPANE  (Gopane)
BAHURUTSHE OF GALENTSWE Tswana Chiefdom of BAHURUTSHE OF GALENTSWE  (Lentswe)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAHHURUTSHE BAGALENTSWE  (Lentswe)
BAHURUTSHE OF GAMOILOA Tswana Chiefdom of BAHURUTSHE OF GAMOILOA in Marico District  (Moilwa)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAHHURUTSHE BAGAMOILWA  (Moilwa)
BAROLONG BARRAPULANA Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BARRAPULANA  (Rapulana)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BOO RAPULANA  (Rapulana)
BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOMARIBA MOAMOGWE Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOMARIBA MOAMOGWE  (Setlagole)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOMARIBA MOAMOGWE  (Setlagole)
BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOMARIBA MOTSHWARE Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOMARIBA MOTSHWARE  (Setlagole)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOMARIBA MOTSHWARE  (Setlagole)
BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOSEITSHIRO Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BARRATLOU BOOSEITSHIRO  (Seitshwaro)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BAROLONG BOO RATLOU BA GA SEITSHWARO  (Seitshwaro)
BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUDU Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUDU  (Taung)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUDU  (Taung)
BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUTSWANE MAHURA Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUTSWANE MAHURA  (Taung)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUTSWANE MAHURA  (Taung)
BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUTSWANE MOLALE Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUTSWANE MOLALE  (Taung)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BAGAPHUDUHUTSWANE MOLALE  (Taung)
BATLHAPING OF GA MAIDI Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING OF GA MAIDI  (Taung)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BA GA MAIDI  (Taung)
BATLHAPING OF GA MOTHIDI Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING OF GA MOTHIDI  (Taung)Local: Tswana Chiefdom of BATLHAPING BA GA MOTHIDI  (Taung)
BOLOBEDU Balobedu Kingdom of BOLOBEDU District  (Bolobedu)Local: BOLOBEDU District  (Bolobedu)
EASTERN CAPE EASTERN CAPE Province  (Bhisho)Local: IPhondo yaMpuma-Koloni : EMPUMA KOLONI (xh) + Provinsie OOS-KAAP (af) + EASTERN CAPE Province (en)  (Bhisho)
EASTERN PONDOLAND East Amapondo Chiefdom of EASTERN PONDOLAND : Mpondo Kingdom  (Bizana)Local: East Amapondo Chiefdom of EASTERN PONDOLAND : Mpondo Kingdom  (Bizana)
FREE STATE FREE STATE Province  (Bloemfontein)Local: Porofensi ya FOREISTATA (st) + VRYSTAAT Provinsie (af) + IPhondo ya FOREISTATA (xh) + FREE STATE Province (en)  (Bloemfontein)
GAUTENG GAUTENG Province  (Johannesburg)Local: Provinsie GAUTENG (af) + Izifundazwe IGAUTENG (zu) + Porofensi tsa GAUTENG (st) + GAUTENG Province (en)  (Johannesburg)
GCALEKALAND Xhosa Chiefdom of Amagcaleka : GCALEKALAND  (Dutywa)Local: Xhosa Chiefdom of Amagcaleka : GCALEKALAND  (Dutywa)
HAMPHAPHULI Vhavenda Chieftaincy of HAMPHAPHULI  (Sibasa)Local: Vhavenda Chieftaincy of HAMPHAPHULI  (Sibasa)
IMIDUSHANE KANDLAMBE Xhosa Chiefdom of IMIDUSHANE KANDLAMBE  (Port Alfred)Local: Xhosa Chiefdom of IMIDUSHANE KANDLAMBE  (Port Alfred)
IMIQHAYI Xhosa Chiefdom of IMIQHAYI  (Imiqayi)Local: Xhosa Chiefdom of IMIQHAYI  (Imiqayi)
KWANDEBELE KWANDEBELE Tribal Authority  (Kwamhlanga)Local: KWANDEBELE Tribal Authority  (KwaMhlanga)
KWAZULU KWAZULU Kingdom  (Nongoma)Local: KWAZULU Kingdom  (Nongoma)
KWAZULU-NATAL KWAZULU-NATAL Province  (Pietermaritzburg)Local: Isifundazwe saKWAZULU-NATAL (zu) + Province of KWAZULU-NATAL (en)  (Pietermaritzburg)
LIMPOPO LIMPOPO Province  (Pietersburg)Local: Porofense ya LIMPOPO (nso) + Xifundzha ya LIMPOPO (ts) + Phurovinsi ya LIMPOPO (ve) + LIMPOPO Province (en)  (Polokwane)
MAMPURU Bapedi Kingdom of MAMPURU  (Lepele-Nkumpi)Local: Bapedi Kingdom of MAMPURU  (Lepele-Nkumpi)
MPUMALANGA MPUMALANGA Province  (Nelspruit)Local: Sifundza seMPUMALANGA (ss) + Isifundazwe saseMPUMALANGA (zu) + Sifundza ye MPUMALANGA (nr) + Provinsie MPUMALANGA (af) + MPUMALANGA Province (en)  (Mbombela)
NORTH-WEST NORTH-WEST Province  (Mafikeng)Local: Diporofinsi ya BOKONE BOPHIRIMA (tn) + NOORDWES Provinsie (af) + NORTH-WEST Province (en)  (Mahikeng)
NORTHERN CAPE NORTHERN CAPE Province  (Kimberley)Local: Provinsie NOORD-KAAP (af) + Diporofinsi ya KAPA BOKONE (tn) + uPhondo yaseMNTLA-KOLONI (xh) + NORTHERN CAPE Province (en)  (Kimberley)
NORTHERN SOTHO NORTHERN SOTHO Kingdom  (Lepele-Nkumpi)Local: NORTHERN SOTHO Kingdom  (Lepelle-Nkumpi)
ORANIA People''s State of ORANIA  (Orania)Local: Volkstaat ORANIA (af)  (Orania)
PEOPLE''S STATE Afrikaner Freedom Front Plus for a PEOPLE''S STATE  (Pretoria)Local: Vryheidsfront Plus Afrikaner : VOLKSTAAT (af)  (Tshwane)
SEKHUKHUNELAND Bapedi Kingdom of SEKHUKHUNELAND  (Mahwelereng)Local: Bapedi Kingdom of SEKHUKHUNELAND  (Mahwelereng)
THABA NCHU Tswana Barolong Baseleka Chiefdom of THABA NCHU  (Thaba Nchu)Local: Hoofmanskap Barolong baSeleka van THABA NCHU (af) + BaRolong baSeleka Chiefdom of THABA NCHU (en) + Kgôsi BARÔLÔNG BASELEKA (tn)  (Thaba Nchu)
THEMBULAND THEMBULAND Royal Empire  (Umtata)Local: THEMBULAND Royal Empire  (Mthatha)
THOHOYANDOU Vhavenda Chieftaincy of THOHOYANDOU  (Thohoyandou)Local: Vhavenda Chieftaincy of THOHOYANDOU  (Thohoyandou)
UMZIMVUBU Ambabhaca Kingdom in UMZIMVUBU Local Municipality  (Mount Frere)Local: Ambabhaca Kingdom in UMZIMVUBU Local Municipality  (Mount Frere)
VENDA Dabalorivhuwa Patriotic Front : VHAVENDA Chieftaincies  (Thohoyandou)Local: Dabalorivhuwa VHAVENDA (ve) + Dabalorivhuwa Patriotic Front : VHAVENDA Chieftaincies (en)  (Thohoyandou)
WESTERN CAPE WESTERN CAPE Province  (Cape Town)Local: Provinsie WES-KAAP (af) + IPhondo yaNtshona-Koloni : INTSHONA KOLONI (xh) + WESTERN CAPE Province (en)  (Cape Town)
WESTERN PONDOLAND West Amapondo Chiefdom of WESTERN PONDOLAND  (Libode)Local: West Amapondo Chiefdom of WESTERN PONDOLAND  (Libode)
WESTERN TEMBHULAND Abathembu Baserhoda Chieftaincy of WESTERN TEMBHULAND  (Cofimvaba)Local: Abathembu baseRhoda Chieftaincy of WESTERN TEMBULAND  (Cofimvaba)

Other notable Territory in Antarctica:

ANTARCTICA AND ISLANDS South African Department of ANTARCTICA AND ISLANDS : Prince Edward and Marion Islands  (Marion)Local: South African Department of ANTARCTICA AND ISLANDS (en) + Suid-Afrikaanse Departement van ANTARKTIKA EN EILANDE (af)  (Marion)





88 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICA-FRANCE Conference of Heads of State of Africa and France : AFRICA-FRANCE Summit  (Bamako)
AFRICAN BANK African Development Bank : AFDB  (Tunis)
AFRICAN CARIBBEAN AND PACIFIC STATES African Caribbean and Pacific Group of States : ACP STATES  (Brussels)
AFRICAN UNION African Union : AU  (Addis Ababa + Midrand)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  (Buenos Aires)
APPA African Petroleum Producers'' Association : APPA  (Brazzaville)
ASIA-AFRICA Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization : AALCO  (New Delhi)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
BRICS Organization of Brazil Russia India China South Africa Group : BRICS  (Johannesburg)
BRICS PLUS BRICS PLUS Block  (Beijing)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
COMMONWEALTH THE COMMONWEATH Secretariat  (Westminster)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FINANCE Financial Stability Board : FSB  (Basle)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN  (New York City)
GROUP OF TWENTY GROUP OF TWENTY Summits  (Buenos Aires + Cancun)
GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development : GROUP OF TWENTY-FOUR  (Washington-District of Columbia)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IBSA IBSA Dialogue Forum : Group of Three  (New Delhi)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMSO International Mobile Satellite Organization : IMSO  (London)
INDIAN OCEAN RIM Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation : IOR-ARC  (Port Louis)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Grand Saconnex)
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT International Criminal Court : ICCT  (The Hague)
INTERNATIONAL IDEA International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance : INTERNATIONAL IDEA  (Stockholm)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
IOM International Organization for Migration : IOM Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency : IRENA  (Masdar City)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
MISSILES Missile Technology Control Regime : MTCR  (Paris)
NATURE CONSERVATION International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
NEW AGENDA New Agenda Coalition : NAC  (Dublin)
NEW DEVELOPMENT BANK New Development Bank : NDB  (Shanghai)
NON-ALIGNED Non-Aligned Movement : NAM - Advancing South South Cooperation  (Jakarta + New York City)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
NUCLEAR TEST BAN Provisional Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization : CTBTO  (Vienna)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PELINDABA TREATY African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty : ANWFZ  (Pelindaba)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SOUTH ATLANTIC ZONE South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone : SAPCZ  (Brasilia)
SOUTH CENTRE SOUTH CENTRE Organization  (Geneva)
SOUTH-SOUTH Partners in Population and Development : PPD  (Dhaka + Kampala + Taicang)
SOUTHERN AFRICA Southern African Development Community : SADC  (Gaborone)
SOUTHERN BLUEFIN TUNA Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna : CCSBT  (Canberra)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT The WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies  (Vienna)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)



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Notes:


   1900.ethnia.org is an essay which goal is to try to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organizations that have existed during the 20th century. The first version of the website dates back from 1996 and had been put online under ethnia.org in 1999. The current version is from 2009 and now allows to search for an entity for any day of the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [rose: country completed at level 2 (province, county, ...), red: level 3 (district, ...), white: level 1 only (region, federated State, ...)]

   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox




 Base sources:

   * World Statesmen, thanks to Ben Cahoon (US): historical polities and their rulers.
   * Statoids, thanks to Gwillim Law (US): historical administrative divisions.
   * Flags Of The World, thanks to Rob Raeside (CA): flags. (the link given is from my mirror of this site)
   * Heraldry of the World, maintained by Ralf Hartemink (NL): coat of arms.
   * Rulers.org, thanks to Benjamin Schemmel (DE): photos of rulers.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US): historical currencies.
   * World History at KMLA, maintained by Alexander Ganse (DE): historical maps.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US): for Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, maintained by Jacques Leclerc (CA): linguistical politics by country.
   * Population Statistics, maintained by Jan Lahmeyer (NL): historical evolution of the population.
   * Wikipedia, for general data, maps, pictures ...
   * Google Books, online library.
   * The other sources are given specifically according to the consulted entity, at bottom page.

   Some of the flags and coat of arms of the website are drawn by myself.

 Specific sources:






Any suggestion, correction, addition or collaboration is welcome and can be sent to .


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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2018-NOV-14.