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2022-JUN-22

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International Organization UNITED ARAB EMIRATES  AFGHANISTAN  ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA  ALBANIA  ARMENIA  ANGOLA  ARGENTINE  AUSTRIA  AUSTRALIA  AZERBAIJAN  BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA  BARBADOS  BANGLADESH  BELGIUM  BURKINA FASO  BULGARIA  BAHRAIN  BURUNDI  BENIN  BRUNEI DARUSSALAM  BOLIVIA  BRAZIL  BAHAMAS  BHUTAN  BOTSWANA  BELARUS  BELIZE  CANADA  CONGO-KINSHASA  CENTRAL-AFRICA  CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE  SWITZERLAND  COTE D´IVOIRE  CHILE  CAMEROON  CHINA  COLOMBIA  COSTA RICA  CUBA  CABO VERDE  CYPRUS  CZECHIA  GERMANY  DJIBOUTI  DENMARK  DOMINICA  DOMINICAN  ALGERIA  ECUADOR  ESTONIA  EGYPT  ERITREA  SPAIN  ETHIOPIA  FINLAND  FIJI  FRANCE  GABON  GRENADA  GEORGIA  GHANA  GAMBIA  GUINEA  EQUATORIAL GUINEA  GREECE  GUATEMALA  GUINEA-BISSAU  GUYANA  HONDURAS  CROATIA  HAITI  HUNGARY  INDONESIA  IRELAND  ISRAEL  INDIA  IRAQ  IRAN  ICELAND  ITALY  JAMAICA  JORDAN  JAPAN  KENYA  KYRGYZSTAN  CAMBODIA  KIRIBATI  COMOROS  SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS  NORTH KOREA  SOUTH KOREA  KUWAIT  KAZAKHSTAN  LAOS  LEBANON  SAINT LUCIA  LIECHTENSTEIN  SRI LANKA  LIBERIA  LESOTHO  LITHUANIA  LUXEMBOURG  LATVIA  LIBYA  MOROCCO  MONACO  MOLDOVA  MONTENEGRO  MADAGASCAR  NORTH MACEDONIA  MALI  MYANMAR  MONGOLIA  MAURITANIA  MALTA  MAURITIUS  MALDIVES  MALAWI  MEXICO  MALAYSIA  MOZAMBIQUE  NAMIBIA  NIGER  NIGERIA  NICARAGUA  NETHERLANDS  NORWAY  NEPAL  NAURU  NEW ZEALAND  OMAN  PANAMA  PERU  PAPUA NEW GUINEA  PHILIPPINES  PAKISTAN  POLAND  PORTUGAL  PARAGUAY  QATAR  ROMANIA  SERBIA  RUSSIA  RWANDA  SAUDI ARABIA  SOLOMON ISLANDS  SEYCHELLES  SUDAN  SWEDEN  SINGAPORE  SLOVENIA  SLOVAKIA  SIERRA LEONE  SAN MARINO  SENEGAL  SOMALIA  SURINAME  SOUTH SUDAN  SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE  EL SALVADOR  SYRIA  ESWATINI  CHAD  TOGO  THAILAND  TAJIKISTAN  TMOR-LESTE  TURKMENISTAN  TUNISIA  TONGA  TURKIYE  TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO  TUVALU  CHINA-TAIPEI  TANZANIA  UKRAINE  UGANDA  UNITED KINGDOM  AMERICA  URUGUAY  UZBEKISTAN  HOLY SEE  SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES  VENEZUELA  VIETNAM  VANUATU  SAMOA  YEMEN  SOUTH AFRICA  ZAMBIA  ZIMBABWE  United Nations Organization : UNO
(New York City)

Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency

Flag or logo since 2007-01-02*
Union Postale Universelle : UPU (fr) + Universal Postal Union : UPU (en) Organisation
Emblem or Symbol*

DG Masahiko Metoki (jp)
(since 2022-01-01)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Berne
(Bern)
Official & national languages: English (en) . French (fr) .






191 Members (excluding the associate or suspended members but including the countries represented on their behalf)   [The rulers are not necessarily the representatives in the organisation. ] :

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (Abu Dhabi ar) President Sheikh Muhammad ibn Zayed Al Nahyan
AFGHANISTAN (Dushanbe x) Amrullah Saleh
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA (Saint John´s q) Queen Elizabeth II
ALBANIA (Tirana) President Ilir Meta
ARMENIA (Erevan) President Vahagn Khachaturyan
ANGOLA (Luanda) President Joao Manuel Goncalves Lourenco
ARGENTINE (Buenos Aires a + Olivos r) President Alberto Fernandez
AUSTRIA (Vienna) President Alexander Van der Bellen
AUSTRALIA (Canberra) David Hurley
AZERBAIJAN (Baku) President Iham Aliyev
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (Sarajevo) President Shefik Dzaferovich
BARBADOS (Bridgetown) President Dame Sandra Mason
BANGLADESH (Dhaka) President Abdul Hamid
BELGIUM (Brussels) King Philippe
BURKINA FASO (Ouagadougou) Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba
BULGARIA (Sofia) President Rumen Radev
BAHRAIN (Manamah) King Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifah
BURUNDI (Gitega a + Bujumbura dnq) President Evariste Ndayishimiye
BENIN (Porto Novo a + Cotonou lnq) President Patrice Talon
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM (Bandar Seri Begawan) Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
BOLIVIA (Sucre cj + La Paz eir) President Luis Arce
BRAZIL (Brasilia) President Jair Bolsonaro
BAHAMAS (Nassau) Queen Elizabeth II
BHUTAN (Thimphu a + Paro s) King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk
BOTSWANA (Gaborone) President Mokgweetsi Masisi
BELARUS (Minsk) President Alexander Lukashenko
BELIZE (Belmopan) Queen Elizabeth II
CANADA (Ottawa) Queen Elizabeth II
CONGO-KINSHASA (Kinshasa) President Felix Tshisekedi
CENTRAL-AFRICA (Bangui) President Faustin-Archange Touadera
CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE (Brazzaville a + Pointe Noire n) President Denis Sassou-Nguesso
SWITZERLAND (Berne q + Lausanne j) President Ignazio Cassis
COTE D´IVOIRE (Yamoussoukro a + Abidjan dln + Cocody b) President Alassane Ouattara
CHILE (Santiago of Chile a + Valparaiso l + Vina del Mar s) President Gabriel Boric
CAMEROON (Yaounde) President Paul Biya
CHINA (Beijing) Xi Jinping
COLOMBIA (Bogota) President Ivan Duque Marquez
COSTA RICA (San Jose) President Rodrigo Chaves Robles
CUBA (Havana) Miguel Diaz-Canel
CABO VERDE (Praia) President Jose Maria Pereira Neves
CYPRUS (Nicosia) President Nicos Anastasiades
CZECHIA (Prague elr + Brno dj + Lany r) President Milos Zeman
GERMANY (Berlin ar + Bonn lr + Carlsruhe d) Bundespresident Frank-Walter Steinmeier
DJIBOUTI (Djibouti) President Ismail Omar Guelleh
DENMARK (Copenhagen) Queen Margaret II
DOMINICA (Roseau) President Charles Savarin
DOMINICAN (Santo Domingo de Guzman) President Luis Abinader
ALGERIA (Algiers a + El Biar d + El Mouradia r) President Abdelmadjid Tebboune
ECUADOR (San Francisco of Quito) President Guillermo Lasso
ESTONIA (Tallinn a + Tartu b) President Alar Karis
EGYPT (Cairo a + Alexandria r + Almasa New Capital City f) President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
ERITREA (Asmara) President Isaias Afewerki
SPAIN (Madrid) King Philip VI
ETHIOPIA (Addis Ababa) President Sahle-Work Zewde
FINLAND (Helsinki a + Kultaranta r) President Sauli Niinisto
FIJI (Suva) President Wiliame Katonivere
FRANCE (Paris) President Emmanuel Macron
GABON (Libreville) President Ali Ben Bongo Ondimba
GRENADA (Saint George´s) Queen Elizabeth II
GEORGIA (Tbilisi a + Batumi d) President Salome Zurabishvili
GHANA (Accra) President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo
GAMBIA (Banjul) President Adama Barrow
GUINEA (Conakry) Mamady Doumbouya
EQUATORIAL GUINEA (City of Peace fl + Malabo a) President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
GREECE (Athens a) President Ekaterini Sakellaropoulou
GUATEMALA (Guatemala City) President Alejandro Giammattei
GUINEA-BISSAU (Bissau) President Umaro Sissoco Embalo
GUYANA (Georgetown) President Mohamed Irfaan Ali
HONDURAS (Tegucigalpa a + Comayaguela c) President Xiomara Castro
CROATIA (Zagreb) President Zoran Milanovich
HAITI (Port Au Prince) Ariel Henry
HUNGARY (Budapest) President Katalin Novak
INDONESIA (Jakarta a + Nusantara f + Bogor r + Chipanas r + Yogyakarta r + Tampaksiring r) President Joko Widodo
IRELAND (Dublin) President Michael Daniel Higgins
ISRAEL (Jerusalem aru + Tel Aviv-Jaffa i) President Isaac Herzog
INDIA (New Delhi a + Simla s + Bolarum w) President Ram Nath Kovind
IRAQ (Baghdad) President Barham Salih
IRAN (Tehran) Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
ICELAND (Reykjavik a + Alftanes r) President Gudhni Thorlacius Johannesson
ITALY (Rome) President Sergio Mattarella
JAMAICA (Kingston) Queen Elizabeth II
JORDAN (Amman) King Abdullah II
JAPAN (Tokyo) Emperor Naruhito
KENYA (Nairobi) President Uhuru Kenyatta
KYRGYZSTAN (Bishkek) President Sadyr Zhaparov
CAMBODIA (Phnom Penh) King Norodom Sihamoni
KIRIBATI (South Tarawa) President Taneti Maamau
COMOROS (Moroni) President Azali Assoumani
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS (Basseterre) Queen Elizabeth II
NORTH KOREA (Pyongyang a) Kim Jong-Un
SOUTH KOREA (Seoul adknr + Sejong b) President Yoon Suk-Yeol
KUWAIT (Kuwait City) Emir Sheikh Nawaf Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah
KAZAKHSTAN (Nur-Sultan) President Kasym-Zhomart Tokayev
LAOS (Vientiane) Thongloun Sisoulith
LEBANON (Beirut a + Hadeth d) President Michel Aoun
SAINT LUCIA (Castries) Queen Elizabeth II
LIECHTENSTEIN (Vaduz) Prince Hans-Adam II
SRI LANKA (Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte al + Colombo ejn + Kandy r) President Gotabaya Rajapaksa
LIBERIA (Monrovia) President George Weah
LESOTHO (Maseru) King Letsie III
LITHUANIA (Vilnius) President Gitanas Nauseda
LUXEMBOURG (Luxembourg City) Grand Duke Henri
LATVIA (Riga) President Egils Levits
LIBYA (Tripoli) Muhammad Younus Al-Menfi
MOROCCO (Rabat) King Muhammad VI
MONACO (Monaco q) Prince Albert II
MOLDOVA (Chisinau) President Maia Sandu
MONTENEGRO (Podgoritsa a + Cetinje hr) President Milo Djukanovich
MADAGASCAR (Tananarive) President Andry Rajoelina
NORTH MACEDONIA (Skopje) President Stevo Pendarovski
MALI (Bamako) Assimi Goita
MYANMAR (Naypyidaw a + Rangoon b) General Min Aung Hlaing
MONGOLIA (Ulan-Bator) President Ukhnaagiin Khurelsukh
MAURITANIA (Nouakchott) President Mohamed Ould Ghazouani
MALTA (Valletta a + Attard r + Siggiewi s) President George Vella
MAURITIUS (Port Louis a + Reduit in Moka r) President Prithvirajsing Pradeep Roopun
MALDIVES (Male) President Ibrahim Mohamed Solih
MALAWI (Lilongwe) President Lazarus Chakwera
MEXICO (Mexico City) President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador
MALAYSIA (Putrajaya aj + Kuala Lumpur ejlry) Sultan Abdullah Shah
MOZAMBIQUE (Maputo) President Filipe Nyusi
NAMIBIA (Windhoek) President Hage Geingob
NIGER (Niamey) President Mohamed Bazoum
NIGERIA (Abuja) President Muhammadu Buhari
NICARAGUA (Managua) President Daniel Ortega
NETHERLANDS (Amsterdam a + The Hague jlr + Wassenaar r) King Willem-Alexander
NORWAY (Oslo) King Harald V
NEPAL (Kathmandu) President Bidhya Devi Bhandari
NAURU (Yaren lq + Aiwo b) President Lionel Aingimea
NEW ZEALAND (Wellington) Queen Elizabeth II
OMAN (Muscat) Sultan Haitham bin Tarik
PANAMA (Panama City) President Laurentino Cortizo Cohen
PERU (Lima a + Arequipa d + Cusco h) President Pedro Castillo
PAPUA NEW GUINEA (Port Moresby) Queen Elizabeth II
PHILIPPINES (Manila acr + Quezon City b + Pasay City b) President Rodrigo Duterte
PAKISTAN (Islamabad) President Arif Alvi
POLAND (Warsaw) President Andrzej Duda
PORTUGAL (Lisbon) President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
PARAGUAY (Assumption) President Mario Abdo Benitez
QATAR (Doha) Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
ROMANIA (Bucharest) President Klaus Iohannis
SERBIA (Belgrade) President Alexandar Vuchich
RUSSIA (Moscow a + Saint Petersburg d) President Vladimir Putin
RWANDA (Kigali) President Paul Kagame
SAUDI ARABIA (Riyadh) King Salman
SOLOMON ISLANDS (Honiara) Queen Elizabeth II
SEYCHELLES (Port Victoria) President Wavel Ramkalawan
SUDAN (Khartoum) Abdel-Fatah al-Burhan Abdelrahman
SWEDEN (Stockholm) King Charles XVI Gustav
SINGAPORE (Singapore) President Halimah Yacob
SLOVENIA (Ljubljana) President Borut Pahor
SLOVAKIA (Bratislava a + Kosice d) President Zuzana Caputova
SIERRA LEONE (Freetown) President Julius Maada Wonie Bio
SAN MARINO (San Marino) Captains-Regent
SENEGAL (Dakar) President Macky Sall
SOMALIA (Mogadishu-Hamar Weyne) President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
SURINAME (Paramaribo) President Chan Santokhi
SOUTH SUDAN (Juba a + Ramshiel f) President Salva Kiir Mayardit
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE (Sao Tome) President Carlos Vila Nova
EL SALVADOR (San Salvador) President Nayib Bukele
SYRIA (Damascus) President Bashar Al-Assad
ESWATINI (Mbabane aj + Lobamba lr) King Mswati III
CHAD (Ndjamena) General Mahamat Idriss Deby Itno Kaka
TOGO (Lome) President Faure Gnassingbe
THAILAND (Bangkok) King Rama X Vajiralongkorn
TAJIKISTAN (Dushanbe) President Emomali Rakhmonov
TMOR-LESTE (Dili) President Jose Manuel Ramos-Horta
TURKMENISTAN (Ashgabat) President Serdar Berdymukhammedov
TUNISIA (Tunis a + Bardois df) President Kais Saied
TONGA (Nukualofa) King Ahoeitu Tupou VI
TURKIYE (Ankara) President Recep Tayyip Erdogan
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (Port-of-Spain) President Paula-Mae Weeke
TUVALU (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti) Queen Elizabeth II
CHINA-TAIPEI (Taipei a) President Tsai Ing-Wen
TANZANIA (Dodoma City al + Dar Es Salaam jnqr) President Samia Suluhu
UKRAINE (Kiev) President Volodymyr Zelensky
UGANDA (Kampala a + Entebbe r) President Yoweri Museveni
UNITED KINGDOM (London a + Westminster lr) Queen Elizabeth II
AMERICA (Washington-District of Columbia) President Joe Biden
URUGUAY (Montevideo) President Luis Alberto Lacalle Pou
UZBEKISTAN (Tashkent) Shavkat Mirziyayev
HOLY SEE (Vatican City) Pope Francis I
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES (Kingstown) Queen Elizabeth II
VENEZUELA (Caracas) President Nicolas Maduro
VIETNAM (Hanoi) Nguyen Phu Trong
VANUATU (Port Vila) President Tallis Obed Moses
SAMOA (Apia) Vaaletoa Sualauvi II
YEMEN (Riyadh x) Rashad al-Alimi
SOUTH AFRICA (Pretoria ae + Cape Town l + Bloemfontein j + Johannesburg d) President Cyril Ramaphosa
ZAMBIA (Lusaka) President Hakainde Hichilema
ZIMBABWE (Harare) President Emmerson Mnangagwa



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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