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1941-AUG-25

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BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations : British Empire
(London + Westminster)

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations : British Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations (en) SDN Observer
Emblem or Symbol*

King George VI
(ruler of UNITED KINGDOM since 1936-12-11)
Capital:London + Westminster - (London + Westminster)
Official languages: English (en) .

Mainland:


UNITED KINGDOM BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of Nations  (London + Westminster)


8 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

AUSTRALIA British Commonwealth of AUSTRALIA  (Canberra) King George VI
CANADA Dominion of CANADA  (Ottawa) King George VI
EIRE Dominion of Ireland : IRISH FREE STATE  (Dublin) President Douglas Hyde
GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London) King George VI
INDIA British Raj of INDIAN Empire  (New Delhi + Simla) Viceroy Victor Hope
ISLE OF MAN ISLE OF MAN Crown Dependency  (Douglas) King George VI
NEW ZEALAND British Dominion of NEW ZEALAND  (Wellington) King George VI
SOUTH AFRICA Union of SOUTH AFRICA  (Pretoria + Cape Town) King George VI


34 Assisted Entities

BHUTAN Kingdom of BHUTAN [Autonomous British Indian Protectorate]  (Paro + Punakha + Thimbu) King Jigme Wangchuk
BRITISH WESTERN PACIFIC British Western Pacific High Commission : WESTERN PACIFIC Territories  (Suva) King George VI
BRUNEI British Protected State of BRUNEI  (Brunei Town) Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin
CENTRAL INDIA CENTRAL INDIA Agency [Princely States under British Indian Suzerainty]  (Indore) Viceroy Victor Hope
CHETNIK YUGOSLAVIA Yugoslav Army of Fatherland : CHETNIK YUGOSLAVIA  (Ravna Gora) General Draza Mihailovich
EGYPT Kingdom of EGYPT  (Cairo) King Farouk I
ETHIOPIA ETHIOPIAN Empire [British Protectorate]  (Addis Ababa) Emperor Ras Tafari Haile Selassie I
FRIENDLY ISLANDS Kingdom of TONGA : British Protected State of the Friendly Islands  (Nukualofa) Queen Charlotte Tupou III
GWALIOR GWALIOR Residency  (The Residency of Gwalior) Maharajah Sir George Jivaji Rao Scindia
HYDEBABAD British Protectorate of the Princely State of Hyderabad and Berar : HYDERABAD Residency  (Hyderabad) Nizam Fath Jang Mir Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII
ICELAND Regency of ICELAND [Allied Occupied Forces in Iceland nominally under Personal Union with Denmark]  (Reykjavik) Regent Sveinn Bjornsson
IRAN Imperial Kingdom of IRAN [British-Soviet Occupation]  (Tehran) Reza Shah Pahlavi the Great
IRAQ IRAQI Kingdom [British Indian Occupation and Protectorate]  (Baghdad) King Faysal II
JAMMU AND KASHMIR Princely State of JAMMU AND KASHMIR [British Indian Protectorate]  (Jammu + Srinagar) Maharajah Sir Hari Singh
JOHORE Sultanate of JOHORE [British Protectorate of the Unfederated Malay State of Johore]  (Johore Bahru + Muar Town) Sultan Ibrahim Al-Masyhur
KEDAH Sultanate of KEDAH [British Protectorate of the Unfederated Malay State of Kedah]  (Alor Star + Anak Bukit) Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah
KELANTAN Sultanate of KELANTAN [Unfederated Malay State of Kelantan]  (Kota Baharu) Sultan Sir Ismail ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad
LEBANON Autonomous LEBANESE Republic [League of Nations Mandate under British Occupation of the Free French Protectorate]  (Beirut) President Alfred Naccache
LEVANT STATES Mandate for Syria and Lebanon : LEVANTINE STATES  (Beirut) General Charles de Gaulle
MALAY STATES Federated MALAY STATES [British Malaya Territory]  (Kuala Lumpur) King George VI
MYSORE Kingdom of MYSORE [British Residency]  (Bangalore) Maharajah Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar
NORTH BORNEO State of NORTH BORNEO [British Protectorate under nominal Suzerainty of the Sultanate of Sulu]  (Sandakhan) King George VI
PALESTINE British Mandate for PALESTINE [League of Nations Mandate]  (Jerusalem) King George VI
PERLIS Kingdom of PERLIS [British Protectorate of the Unfederated Malay State of Perlis]  (Kangar + Arau) Raja Syed Alwi IV
PERSIAN GULF STATES PERSIAN GULF Residency  (Bushire) Viceroy Victor Hope
RAJPUTANA RAJPUTANA Agency  (Mount Abu) Viceroy Victor Hope
SARAWAK Kingdom of SARAWAK [British Protectorate]  (Kuching + Miri) Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke
SENUSSIA SENUSSI Sheikhdom of Cyrenaica  (Jarabub) Sidi Muhammad Idris Al-Senussi
SIKKIM Autonomous Kingdom of SIKKIM [British Protectorate]  (Gangtok) Maharajah Sir Tashi Namgyal
SYRIA State of SYRIA [British Military Administration of the French Free Protectorate]  (Damascus) Khalid al-Azm
TIBET Kingdom of TIBET  (Lhasa) Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso
TRANSJORDAN TRANSJORDAN Emirate [League of Nations Mandate under British Protectorate]  (Amman) Emir Abdallah I
TRENGGANU Sultanate of TRENGGANU [British Protectorate of the Unfederated Malay State of Trengganu]  (Kuala Trengganu) Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
ZANZIBAR Sultanate of ZANZIBAR [British Protectorate]  (Zanzibar Stone Town) Sultan Sidi Khalifa II bin Kharub



46 Territories:

ADEN BRITISH ADEN Colony and Protectorates  (Aden)Local: BRITISH ADEN Colony and Protectorates (en)  (Aden)
ARUBA BASE Allied Military Commandment ARUBA  (Aruba Base)Local: Allied Military Commandment ARUBA (en)  (Aruba Base)
BAHAMAS British Crown Colony of THE BAHAMAS  (Nassau)Local: British Crown Colony of THE BAHAMAS (en)  (Nassau)
BASUTOLAND BECHUANALAND AND SWAZILAND High Commission for Basutoland the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland : BASUTOLAND BECHUANALAND AND SWAZILAND  (Maseru)Local: High Commission for Basutoland the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland : BASUTOLAND BECHUANALAND AND SWAZILAND (en)  (Maseru)
BERMUDA ISLANDS Crown Colony of THE BERMUDA ISLANDS : Crown Colony of The Somers Isles  (Hamilton)Local: Crown Colony of THE BERMUDA ISLANDS : Crown Colony of The Somers Isles (en)  (Hamilton)
BRITISH CYRENAICA British Forces in CYRENAICA  (British Forces in Cyrenaica)Local: British Forces in CYRENAICA  (British Forces in Cyrenaica)
BRITISH HONDURAS Crown Colony of BRITISH HONDURAS  (Belize City)Local: Crown Colony of BRITISH HONDURAS (en)  (Belize City)
BRITISH IRAN British Protectorate of IRAN  (Sanandaj)Local: British Protectorate of IRAN (en)  (Sanandaj)
BRITISH SOMALILAND Military Governorate of BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate  (Hargeisa)Local: BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate (en)  (Hargeisa)
BRITISH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN British Concession  (Tientsin British Concession)Local: British Concession of TIENTSIN (en)  (Tientsin British Concession)
BRITISH WEST INDIES BRITISH WEST INDIES Territories  (Port-of-Spain)Local: BRITISH WEST INDIES Territories (en)  (Port-of-Spain)
BURMA British Colony of BURMA  (Rangoon)Local: British Colony of BURMA (en)  (Rangoon)
CEYLON British Crown Colony of CEYLON  (Colombo)Local: British Crown Colony of CEYLON (en)  (Colombo)
CYPRUS Crown Colony of CYPRUS  (Nicosia)Local: Crown Colony of CYPRUS (en)  (Nicosia)
ELEMI British Occupied ELEMI Area  (Liwan)Local: British Occupied ELEMI Area (en)  (Liwan)
ERITREA British Military Administration of ERITREA [British Protectorate]  (Asmara)Local: British Military Administration of ERITREA (en)  (Asmara)
FAEROE ISLANDS FAEROE ISLANDS County [British Occupation]  (Thorshavn)Local: FAEROE ISLANDS County (en) + FÆRØERNE Amt (da)  (Thorshavn)
FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES British Crown Colony of FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES  (Port Stanley)Local: British Crown Colony of FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Stanley)
FAU British Territory of FAU  (Fau)Local: British Territory of FAU (en)  (Fau)
GAMBIA GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate  (Bathurst)Local: GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Bathurst)
GIBRALTAR British Crown Colony of GIBRALTAR  (Gibraltar)Local: British Crown Colony of GIBRALTAR (en)  (Gibraltar)
GOLD COAST GOLD COAST Crown Colony  (Accra)Local: GOLD COAST Crown Colony (en)  (Accra)
HABBANIYA British Sovereign Base of the Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA  (Habbaniya)Local: Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA (en)  (Habbaniya)
HEARD ISLAND AND MACDONALD ISLANDS Territory of HEARD ISLAND AND MACDONALD ISLANDS  ((London) + Heard Island)Local: Territory of HEARD ISLAND AND MACDONALD ISLANDS (en)  ((London) + Heard Island)
HONG KONG British Crown Colony of HONG KONG  (Victoria City)Local: British Crown Colony of HONG KONG (en)  (Victoria City)
ITALIAN SOMALILAND British Administration of Occupied ITALIAN SOMALILAND  (Mogadishu)Local: British Administration of Occupied ITALIAN SOMALILAND (en) + SOMALIA ITALIANA Occupato (it)  (Mogadishu)
JAMAICA AND DEPENDENCIES British Crown Colony of JAMAICA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Kingston)Local: British Crown Colony of JAMAICA AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Kingston)
KENGTUNG British Administration of KENGTUNG  (Kengtung)Local: British Administration of KENGTUNG (en)  (Chiang Tung)
KENYA Colony and Protectorate of KENYA  (Nairobi)Local: Colony of Kenya and Protectorate of KENYA (en)  (Nairobi)
KHUZISTAN British Protectorate of KHUZISTAN Province  (Ahwaz)Local: British Protectorate of KHUZISTAN Province (en) + Ostān-e KHUZESTAN : استان خوزستان (fa)  (Al-Ahwaz)
LOWER EGYPT British Occupied Territory of LOWER EGYPT  (Cairo)Local: British Occupied Territory of LOWER EGYPT (en) + Mintaqah MISR AL-SUFLA : إقليم مصر السفلى (ar)  (Al-Qahirah)
MALTA British Crown Colony of MALTA  (Valletta)Local: British Crown Colony of MALTA (en)  (Valletta)
MAURITIUS British Colony of MAURITIUS  (Port Louis)Local: British Colony of MAURITIUS (en)  (Port Louis)
NEWFOUNDLAND Crown Colony of NEWFOUNDLAND  (Saint John''s)Local: Crown Colony of NEWFOUNDLAND (en)  (Saint John''s)
NIGERIA Colony and Protectorate of NIGERIA  (Lagos)Local: Colony and Protectorate of NIGERIA (en)  (Lagos)
NORTHERN RHODESIA British Protectorate of NORTHERN RHODESIA  (Lusaka)Local: British Protectorate of NORTHERN RHODESIA (en)  (Lusaka)
NYASALAND NYASALAND Protectorate  (Zomba)Local: NYASALAND Protectorate (en)  (Zomba)
PRINCE EDWARD AND MARION ISLANDS PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS Group  (Marion)Local: PRINCE EDWARD ISLANDS Group (en)  (Marion)
SAINT HELENA ISLANDS British Crown Colony of SAINT HELENA  (Jamestown)Local: British Crown Colony of SAINT HELENA (en)  (Jamestown)
SEYCHELLES ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES British Crown Colony of SEYCHELLES ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES  (Port Victoria)Local: British Crown Colony of SEYCHELLE ISLAND AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Victoria)
SHAN British Residency of the SHAN STATE Administrative Circle  (Taunggyi)Local: SHAN STATE Administrative Circle (en) + Shan TAI : တႆး (shn)  (Taunggyi)
SIERRA LEONE SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate  (Freetown)Local: SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Freetown)
SIMONSTOWN British Naval Base of SIMON''S TOWN  (Simon''s Town)Local: Naval Base SIMON''S TOWN (en)  (Simon''s Town)
SOUTHERN RHODESIA British Colony of SOUTHERN RHODESIA  (Salisbury)Local: British Colony of SOUTHERN RHODESIA (en)  (Salisbury)
STRAITS SETTLEMENTS Crown Colony of the STRAITS SETTLEMENTS  (Singapore)Local: Crown Colony of the STRAITS SETTLEMENTS (en)  (Singapore)
UGANDA UGANDA Colony  (Entebbe)Local: UGANDA Colony (en)  (Entebbe)

29 Condominiums:

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN  (Khartoum)Local: Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN (en) + AL-SUDAN AL-MUSR YAL-ANGELAZY : السودان المصرى الإنجليزى (ar)  (Khartoum)
BRITISH CAMEROONS League of Nations Mandate of BRITISH CAMEROONS administered from Nigeria  (Buea)Local: League of Nations Mandate of BRITISH CAMEROONS (en)  (Buea)
BRITISH TOGOLAND Administration of BRITISH TOGOLAND [League of Nations Mandate administered from Gold Coast]  (Ho)Local: Administration of BRITISH TOGOLAND (en)  (Ho)
CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS Anglo-American Condominium of CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS  (Canton Island)Local: Anglo-American Condominium of CANTON AND ENDERBURY ISLANDS (en)  (Canton Island)
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
CAROLINE ISLAND Atoll of CAROLINE ISLAND [British Lease to United States]  (Caroline)Local: CAROLINE ISLAND Atoll (en)  (Caroline)
COASTAL KENYA Coastal Domains of Zanzibar : KENYA Protectorate  (Mombasa)Local: KENYA Protectorate (en)  (Mombasa)
ELEMI TRIANGLE Kenyan Administration of Sudanese ELEMI TRIANGLE Zone  (Elemi)Local: ELEMI TRIANGLE Zone (en) + Eradi ILEMI : أراضي يليمي (ar)  (Ilemi)
FLINT ISLAND FLINT ISLAND Zone [British Lease to United States]  (Flint)Local: FLINT Island (en)  (Flint)
GEORGES BANK GEORGES BANK Area  (-)Local: GEORGES BANK Area (en)  (-)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
KUWAITI-SAUDI NEUTRAL ZONE KUWAITI-SAUDI NEUTRAL ZONE Area  (Khafji)Local: KUWAITI-SAUDI ARABIAN NEUTRAL ZONE Area (en) + KUWAYTI-SAUDI Al-Mintaqah Mahaadh : المنطقة المحايدة بين الكويت والسعودية (ar)  (Al-Khafji)
NAURU Territory of NAURU [Australian administration of the League of Nations Mandate]  (Makwa)Local: Territory of NAURU (en) + Teritori NAOERO (na)  (Makwa)
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES Allied Forces in the Government-General of the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Allied Protectorate]  (Willemstad)Local: Allied Forces in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES (en) + Gebiedsdeel van NEDERLANDSE ANTILLEN (nl)  (Willemstad)
NEUTRAL TERRITORY Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY  (Mill Tower)Local: Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY (en) + ZONA NEUTRAL de Gibraltar (es)  (Torre del Molino)
NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES Free French Colony of NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Numea)Local: Colonie française libre de NOUVELLE-CALÉDONIE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Nouméa)
NEW GUINEA British Territory of NEW GUINEA [Australian administration of the League of Nations Mandate]  (Lae)Local: Territory of NEW GUINEA (en)  (Lae)
NEW HEBRIDES Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: NEW HEBRIDES Condominium (en) + Condominium des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Chinese Controlled Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
RUANDA-URUNDI Province of RUANDA-URUNDI [League of Nations Mandate administered from Belgian Congo]  (Usumbura)Local: Province du RUANDA-URUNDI (fr) + Provincie ROEANDA-OEROENDI (nl)  (Usumbura)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN Free French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAUDI-IRAQI NEUTRAL ZONE Co-Administration of SAUDI-IRAQI NEUTRAL ZONE  ((Uqayr))Local: Co-Administration of SAUDI-IRAQI NEUTRAL ZONE (en) + HUDUD SAUDI-IRAQI : المنطقة المحايدة السعودية العراقية (ar)  ((Uqair))
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SOUTH WEST AFRICA Mandate of SOUTH WEST AFRICA [League of Nations Mandate under South African administration]  (Windhoek)Local: Mandaat van SUIDWES-AFRIKA (af) + Mandate of SOUTH WEST AFRICA (en) + Mandaatgebied van ZUIDWEST-AFRIKA (nl) + Mandatsgebiet SÜDWESTAFRIKA (de)  (Windhoek)
SUEZ CANAL ZONE SUEZ CANAL ZONE under British Protection [Suez Canal Company]  (Port Suez)Local: Suez Canal Company : SUEZ CANAL ZONE (en) + Compagnie du Canal de Suez : ZONE DU CANAL DE SUEZ (fr) + Muhafazah QANAT AS-SUWAIS : محافظة قناة السويس (ar)  (Port Suez)
SVALBARD Allied Occupied Territory of SVALBARD  (Longyearbyen)Local: Territorium på SVALBARD (nb) + SVALBARD Territory (en)  (Longyearbyen)
TANGANYIKA League of Nations Mandate of TANGANYIKA Territory  (Daressalam)Local: TANGANYIKA Territory (en)  (Daressalam)
WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND  ((Port Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))Local: Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND (en) + Sector en la TIERRA DE ELLSWORTH OCCIDENTAL (es)  ((Port Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))
WESTERN SAMOA Territory of WESTERN SAMOA [League of Nations Mandate under New Zealand Administration]  (Apia)Local: Territory of WESTERN SAMOA (en) + Teritori o SAMOA I SISIFO (sm)  (Apia)

Dependent Protectorates:

ADI KAIEH ADI KAIEH Residency  (Adi Kaieh)Local: ADI CAIEH Residency (en)  (Adi Qayeh)
ADI UGRI ADI UGRI Residency  (Adi Ugri)Local: ADI UGRI Residency (en)  (Adi Ugri)
AFGOY AFGOY Residency  (Wanla Weyn)Local: AFGOY Residency (en) + Residenza di AFGOI (it)  (Wanla Weyn)
AFMADU AFMADU Residency  (Afmadu)Local: Residenza di AFMADÙ (it)  (Afmadu)
AGORDAT AGORDAT Residency  (Agordat)Local: AGORDAT Residency (it)  (Agordat)
AKYEM ABUAKWA British Protectorate of the Akan State of AKYEM ABUAKWA  (Abuakwa)Local: British Protectorate of the Akan State of AKYEM ABUAKWA  (Abuakwa)
ALAWI British Protectorate of ALAWI Sheikhdom of Al Kasha  (Al Sawda Kasha)Local: ALAWI Sheikhdom of Al Kasha (en) + Al-Mashyakha AL-`ALAWIYYA : مشيخة العلوي (ar)  (Al Sawda Kasha)
ALULA ALULA Residency  (Alula)Local: ALULA Residency (en) + Residenza di ALULA (it)  (Alula)
ANKOLE British Protectorate of ANKOLE Kingdom  (Mbarara)Local: Kingdom of ANKOLE (en) + Omugabe bwa ANKOLE (nyn)  (Mbarara)
AQRABI British Protectorate of AQRABI Sheikhdom of Bir Ahmad  (Bir Ahmad)Local: AQRABI Sheikhdom of Bir Ahmad (en) + Al-Mashyakha AL-`AQRABIYYA : مشيخة عقربي (ar)  (Bir Ahmad)
ASHANTI ASANTEMAN Confederation [British Protectorate]  (Kumasi)Local: ASANTEMAN Confederation (en) + ASANTE Aman (tw)  (Kumasi)
ASMARA ASMARA Residency  (Asmara)Local: ASMARA Residency (en)  (Asmara)
ASSABA ASSABA Residency  (Assaba)Local: ASSABA Residency (en)  (Assaba)
AUDEGLE AUDEGLE Residency  (Audegle)Local: AUDEGLE Residency (en) + Residenza di AUDEGLE (it)  (Audegle)
AWDHALI British Protectorate of AWDHALI Sultanate of Zara  (Zara)Local: AWDHALI Sultanate of Zara (en) + Al-Saltana AL-`AWDHALIYYA : سلطنة العوذلي (ar)  (Zarah)
BA KAZIM Sheikhdoms of BA KAZIM Vassal State of Lower Awlaki  (Majalah)Local: Sheikhdoms of BA KAZIM (en) + Mushykhat BA KAZIM : المشيخات با كاظم (ar)  (Al-Ma''jalah)
BAIDOA BAIDOA Residency  (Isha Baidoa)Local: Residency of BAIDOA (en) + Residenza di BAIDOA (it)  (Isha Baidoa)
BALAD BALAD Residency  (Balad)Local: Residency of BALAD (en) + Residenza di BALÀD (it)  (Balad)
BARDERA BARDERA Residency  (Bardera)Local: Residency of BARDERA (en) + Residenza di BARDERA (it)  (Bardera)
BARENTU BARENTU Residency  (Barentu)Local: BARENTU Residency (en)  (Barentu)
BAROTSELAND British Protectorate of BAROTSELAND  (Mongu)Local: British Protectorate of BAROTSELAND (en) + Mbumu wa Litunga ROZI (loz)  (Mongu)
BASUTOLAND Colony of BASUTOLAND : British Residency Commission for Basutoland  (Maseru)Local: Colony of BASUTOLAND : British Residency Commission for Basutoland (en)  (Maseru)
BECHUANALAND British Protectorate of BECHUANALAND  ((Mafeking))Local: BECHUANALAND Protectorate (en)  ((Mafeking))
BELEDWEYN BELEDWEYN Residency  (Beledweyn)Local: Residency of BELETWEYNE (en) + Residenza di BELET UEN (it)  (Beletweyne)
BENDER KASSIM BENDER KASSIM Residency  (Bender Kassim)Local: Residency of BENDER KASSIM (en) + Residenza di BENDER CASSIM (it)  (Bender Kassim)
BRAVA BRAVA Residency  (Brava)Local: BRAVA Residency (en) + Residenza di BRAVA (it)  (Brava)
BRITISH SIERRA LEONE SIERRA LEONE Protectorate  ((Freetown))Local: SIERRA LEONE Protectorate (en)  ((Freetown))
BUGANDA Kingdom of BUGANDA [British Protectorate]  (Mengo)Local: Kingdom of BUGANDA (en) + Obwakabaka bwa BUGANDA (lg)  (Mengo)
BULOBARDE BULOBARDE Residency  (Bulobarde)Local: Residency of BULOBARDE (en) + Residenza di BULO BURTI (it)  (Buulo Berde)
BUNYORO-KITARA Kingdom of BUNYORO-KITARA [British Protectorate]  (Hoima)Local: Kingdom of BUNYORO-KITARA (en) + Okumaka bwa BUNYORO-KITARA (nyo)  (Hoima)
BURHAKABA BURHAKABA Residency  (Burhakaba)Local: Residency of BURHAKABA (en) + Residenza di BUR ACABA (it)  (Burhakaba)
CANDALA CANDALA Residency  (Candala)Local: Residency of CANDALA (en) + Residenza di CANDALA (it)  (Candala)
DAGOMBA British Protectorate of the DAGOMBA State : Kingdom of Dagbon  (Yendi)Local: Kingdom of DAGBONG (en) + Yan'' Naa DAGBONG (dag)  (Yendi)
DANTE DANTE Residency  (Dante)Local: DANTE Residency (en)  (Dante)
DECAMERE DECAMERE Residency  (Decamere)Local: DECAMERE Residenty (en)  (Decamere)
DHALIA Emirate of DHALA [British Protectorate]  (Dhala)Local: Imārat Aḍ-ḌĀLI'' : إمارة الضالع (ar) + Emirate of DHALA (en)  (Dhala)
DINSOR DINSOR Residency  (Dinsor)Local: Residency of DINSOR (en) + Residenza di DINSOR (it)  (Dinsor)
DUSA MARREB DUSA MARREB Residency  (Dusa Marreb)Local: Residency of DUSA MARREB (en) + Residenza di DUSA MAREB (it)  (Dusa Marreb)
EASTERN ADEN States of EASTERN ADEN Protectorates  (Mukalla)Local: EASTERN ADEN Protectorates (en) + Maḥmiyyat ʿADAN ASH-SHARQ : محمية عدن المحميات (ar)  (Al-Mukalla)
ELBUR EL BUR Residency  (Elbur)Local: Residency of EL BUR (en) + Residenza di EL BUR (it)  (Elbur)
ELDHER ELDHER Residency  (Eldher)Local: Residency of ELDHER (en) + Residenza di EL DERE (it)  (Eldher)
EYL EYL Residency  (Eyl)Local: Residency of EYL (en) + Residenza di EIL (it)  (Eyl)
FADHLI British Protectorate of FADHLI Sultanate of Zinjibar  (Shukra)Local: Al-Saltana AL-FADLIYYA : السلطنة الفضلية (ar) + FADHLI Sultanate (en)  (Shuqrah)
GALKAYO GALKAYO Residency  (Galkayo)Local: Residency of GALCAIO (it)  (Galcaio)
GAROWE GAROWE Residency  (Garowe)Local: Residency of GAROWE (en) + Residenza di GAROE (it)  (Garowe)
GELIB GELIB Residency  (Jilib)Local: Residency of GELIB (en) + Residenza di GELIB (it)  (Gelib)
HAURA British Protectorate of the Dhiebi Sheikhdom of HAURA  (Haura)Local: Dhiebi Sheikhdom of HAWRA (en) + Mashyakhat AL-HAWRA'' : المشيخة من الحوراء (ar)  (Hawra)
IRQA British Protectorate of the Dhiebi Sheikhdom of IRQA  (Irqa)Local: Dhiebi Sheikhdom of IRQA (en) + Mashyakhat AL-''IRQAH : مشيخة آل عرقة (ar)  (Al-''Irqah)
ITALA ITALA Residency  (Itala)Local: Residency of ATALA (en) + Residenza di ATALA (it)  (Itala)
KATHIRI British Protectorate of the KATHIRI Sultanate of Seiyun in Hadhramaut  (Seiyun)Local: KATHIRI State of Seiyun in Hadhramaut (en) + Saltanat Ay''un AL-KATHIRIYYA Hadramawt : السلطنة الكثيرية - سيؤن - حضرموت (ar)  (Sayun)
KEREN KEREN Residency  (Keren)Local: CHEREN Residency (en)  (Cheren)
KISMAYO KISMAYO Residency  (Kismayo)Local: Residency of KISMAYO (en) + Residenza di CHISIMAIO (it)  (Kismayo)
KISUMU-LONDIANI Residency of KISUMU-LONDIANI District  (Londiani)Local: Residency of KISUMU-LONDIANI District (en)  (Londiani)
KOKANG Sub-State of KOKANG under British Protection  (Kungkeng)Local: KOKANG Sub-State (en) + KUO-KAN Chou : 果敢州 (zh) + KOEKANT Pyinaal : ကိုးကန့်ပြည်နယ် (my)  (Konkyan)
LABUAN Settlement of LABUAN [British Residency]  (Victoria)Local: Settlement of LABUAN (en)  (Victoria)
LAGOS HINTERLAND LAGOS Protectorate  (Lagos)Local: LAGOS Protectorate (en)  (Lagos)
LOWER AWLAKI British Protectorate of LOWER AWLAKI Sultanate of Ahwar  (Ahwar)Local: LOWER AWLAQI Sultanate of Hawar (en) + Al-Saltana AL-`AWLAQIYYA AL-SUFLA : سلطنة العوالق السفلى (ar)  (Ahwar)
LOWER YAFA British Protectorate of the Banu Afif Sultanate of LOWER YAFA  (Jaar)Local: Bani `Afif Sultanate of LOWER YAFA''I (en) + Salṭanat YĀFI‘ AS-SUFLÁ : سلطنة يافع السفلى (ar)  (Jaar)
LUGH FERRANDI LUGH FERRANDI Residency  (Lugh Ferrandi)Local: Residency of LUGH FERRANDI (en) + Residenza di LUGH FERRANDI (it)  (Lugh Ferrandi)
MALACCA Crown Colony of MALACCA [British Residency]  (Malacca Town)Local: Crown Colony of MALACCA (en)  (Malacca Town)
MALDIVE ISLANDS Sultanate of THE MALDIVE ISLANDS [British Protectorate administered from Ceylon]  (Male)Local: Sultanate of THE MALDIVE ISLANDS (en) + DHIVEHI RAJJE Sultanat : އައްސުލްޠާން ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ (dv)  (Male)
MARGHERITA MARGHERITA Residency  (Margherita)Local: Residency of MARGHERITA (en) + Residenza di MARGHERITA (it)  (Margherita)
MASSAWA MASSAWA Residency  (Massawa)Local: MASSAWA Residency (en)  (Massawa)
MERCA MERCA Residency  (Merca)Local: MERCA Residency (en) + Residenza di MERCA (it)  (Merca)
MOGADISHU MOGADISHU Residency  (Mogadishu)Local: Residency of MOGADISHU (en) + Residenza di MOGADISCIO (it)  (Mogadishu)
NAKFA NAKFA Residency  (Nakfa)Local: NAKFA Residency (en)  (Nakfa)
NORTHERN TERRITORIES OF THE GOLD COAST Protectorate of the NORTHERN TERRITORIES OF THE GOLD COAST Dependency  (Tamale)Local: NORTHERN TERRITORIES OF THE GOLD COAST Dependency (en)  (Tamale)
OBBIA OBBIA Residency  (Obbia)Local: OBBIA Residency (en) + Residenza di OBBIA (it)  (Obbia)
ODDUR ODDUR Residency  (Oddur)Local: Residency of ODDUR (en) + Residenza di ODDUR (it)  (Oddur)
OGADEN British Military Administration of the OGADEN  (Kelafo)Local: British Military Administration of the OGADEN (en)  (Kelafo)
OYO British Protectorate of the Yoruba State of OYO  (Oyo)Local: Yoruba State of OYO (en) + Ipinle ti OYO (yo)  (Oyo)
PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY Crown Colony of PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY [British Residency]  (George Town)Local: Crown Colony of PENANG AND PROVINCE WELLESLEY (en)  (George Town)
POTISKUM POTISKUM Residency  (Potiskum)Local: POTISKUM Residency (en)  (Potiskum)
QISHN AND SOCOTRA British Protectorate of the Mahri Sultanate of QISHN AND SOCOTRA  (Qishn + Tamrida)Local: Mahri Sultanate of QISHN AND SOCOTRA (en) + Salṭanat al-Mahrah fī QISHN WA SUQUṭRAH : سلطنة المهرة في قشن وسقطرة (ar)  (Qishn + Tamrida)
SOCOTRA AND DEPENDENCIES British Protectorate of SOCOTRA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Tamrida)Local: British Protectorate of SOCOTRA AND DEPENDENCIES (en) + SUQUTRAH : سقطرى وتبعيات (ar)  (Tamrida)
SWAZILAND Protectorate of SWAZILAND [British Residency Commission for Swaziland Crown Colony]  (Mbabane + Lobamba)Local: Protectorate of SWAZILAND (en)  (Mbabane + Lobamba)
TESSENEY TESSENEY Residency  (Tesseney)Local: TESSENEY Residency (en)  (Tesseney)
THIO THIO Residency  (Thio)Local: THIO Residency (en)  (Thio)
TORO TORO Kingdom [British Protectorate]  (Fort Portal)Local: Kingdom of TORO (en) + Omukama bwa TOORO (ttj)  (Fort Portal)
UPPER AWLAKI OF MAAN British Protectorate of UPPER AWLAKI Sheikhdom of Maan  (Yashbum + Said)Local: UPPER AWLAQI Sheikhdom of Maan (en) + Al-Mashyakha AL-`AWLAQIYYA AL-`ULYA : مشيخة العوالق العليا (ar)  (Yashbum + As-Said)
UPPER AWLAKI OF NISAB British Protectorate of UPPER AWLAKI Sultanate of Nisab  (Nisab)Local: UPPER AWLAQI Sultanate of Nisab (en) + Al-Saltana AL-`AWLAQIYYA AL-`ULYA : سلطنة العوالق العليا (ar)  (Nisab)
UPPER YAFA British Protectorate of the Sultanate of UPPER YAFA  (Mahjaba)Local: Sultanate of UPPER YAFA (en) + Saltanat YAFA` AL-ULYA : سلطنة يافع العليا (ar)  (Mahjabah)
WAHIDI BALHAF AND AZZAN British Protectorates of the Wahidi Sultanate of BALHAF AND AZZAN  (Balhaf + Azzan)Local: Saltanat al-Wahidiyya BA AL-HAF WA ''AZZAN : سلطنة الواحدي في بلحاف والأذان (ar) + Wahidi Sultanate of BAL HAF AND AZZAN (en)  (Ba Al-Haf + ''Azzan)
WAHIDI-BIR ALI AMAQUIN British Protectorate of the Wahidi Sultanate of BIR ALI AMAQUIN  (Bir Ali)Local: Saltanat al-Wahidiyya BI''R ''ALI ''AMAQIN : سلطنة الواحدي بير علي اماكن (ar) + Wahidi Sultanate of BIR ALI AMAQIN (en)  (Bir Ali)
WAHIDI-HABBAN British Protectorate of the Wahidi Sultanate of HABBAN  (Habban)Local: Saltanat al-Wahidiyya HABBAN : سلطنة الواحدي حبان (ar) + Wahidi Sultanate of HABBAN (en)  (Habban)
WARSANGELI Military Administration of the Sultanate of WARSANGELI  (Las Khorey)Local: Military Administration of the Sultanate of WARSANGELI (en) + Saldanada WARSANGELI (so) + Saltanat WARSINGELI : سلطنة أوسنجلي (ar)  (Las Khorey)
WESTERN ADEN States of THE WESTERN ADEN Protectorates  (Houta-Lahej The Green)Local: States of THE WESTERN ADEN Protectorates (en) + Muhmiat ADAN AL-GHARBIA : محمية عدن الغربية (ar)  (Al Houta-Lahej Al-Khathra)
YOLA Lamidate of Adamawa : Emirate of YOLA under British Protection  (Yola)Local: Emirate of YOLA (en) + Lamido YOLA : لمده يولاه (fub)  (Yola)



16 Governments in Exile

ALBANIA IN EXILE Kingdom of ALBANIA IN EXILE  (Parmoor) King Zog I Skanderbeg III
CZECHOSLOVAKIA IN EXILE CZECHOSLOVAK Government in Exile  (London) President Edvard Benes
DANZIG Association of Nationals of DANZIG Free State in exile  (London + Melbourne) W Richter
EUZKADI BASQUE Government in Exile : Basque National Council  (Gothenburg + London) President Jose Antonio de Aguirre y Lecube
FREE BELGIUM BELGIAN Government in Exile  (London) PM Hubert Pierlot
FREE DENMARK FREE DANISH Council  (London) Karl Anker-Petersen
FREE ESTONIA ESTONIAN Representatives in Exile  (London) August Torma
FREE FRANCE FREE FRENCH Council of Defence of the Empire  (Brazzaville + London) General Charles de Gaulle
GREECE IN EXILE Kingdom of GREECE in Exile  (London) King George II
KAJARS KAJAR Dynasty in Exile  (Maidenhead) Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza
LATVIA IN EXILE Republic of LATVIA IN EXILE  (London) Karlis Zarins
LUXEMBURG IN EXILE Grand Duchy of LUXEMBURG in Exile  (Montreal) Grand Duchess Charlotte
NETHERLANDS IN EXILE DUTCH Government in Exile [Dutch Colonial Realm]  (London + Ottawa) Queen Wilhelmina
NORWAY IN EXILE Kingdom of NORWAY IN EXILE  (London) King Haakon VII
POLAND IN EXILE Government of the Republic of POLAND IN EXILE  (London + Polish Resistance) President Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz
YUGOSLAVIA Kingdom of YUGOSLAVIA in Exile  (London) King Peter II Karageorgevich



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

ANDROS BASE British Leased United States Base of ANDROS  (Fresh Creek Base)Local: ANDROS Base (en)  (Fresh Creek Base)
ARUBA BASE Allied Military Commandment ARUBA  (Aruba Base)Local: Allied Military Commandment ARUBA (en)  (Aruba Base)
ATKINSON Leased ATKINSON Airfield  (Atkinson Airfield)Local: ATKINSON Airfield (en)  (Atkinson Airfield)
BEANE Leased BEANE Air Force Base  (Beane)Local: BEANE Air Force Base (en)  (Beane)
BRITISH GURKHAS British Gurkhas Nepal : BGN  (Jawalakhel + Pokhara)Local: British Gurkhas Nepal : BGN (en)  (Jawalakhel + Pokhara)
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
COOLIDGE Leased COOLIDGE Air Field  (Coolidge Airfield)Local: COOLIDGE Air Field (en)  (Coolidge Airfield)
EDINBURGH Leased EDINBURGH Area  (Edinburgh)Local: Leased EDINBURGH Area (en)  (Edinburgh)
HABBANIYA British Sovereign Base of the Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA  (Habbaniya)Local: Royal Air Force Station HABBANIYA (en)  (Habbaniya)
IMPERIAL WAR GRAVES Imperial War Graves Commission : IWGC  (Maidenhead)Local: Imperial War Graves Commission : IWGC (en)  (Maidenhead)
SAN SALVADOR BASE Leased SAN SALVADOR Base  (San Sal)Local: SAN SALVADOR Base (en)  (San Sal)
SIMONSTOWN British Naval Base of SIMON''S TOWN  (Simon''s Town)Local: Naval Base SIMON''S TOWN (en)  (Simon''s Town)
STATION ABU SUEIR Royal Air Force STATION ABU SUEIR  (Station Abu Sueir)Local: Royal Air Force STATION ABU SUEIR (en)  (Station Abu Sueir)
SUFFIELD British Chemical Weapons Testing Facility in SUFFIELD  (Suffield)Local: British Chemical Weapons Testing Facility in SUFFIELD (en)  (Suffield)
VERNAM Leased VERNAM Airfield  (Vernam Field)Local: VERNAM Airfield (en)  (Vernamfield)
WALLER Leased WALLER Area  (Waller)Local: WALLER Area (en)  (Waller)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London)
ISLE OF MAN ISLE OF MAN Crown Dependency  (Douglas)


Other Territories or Entities within the 2021's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ABERCORN Dukedom of ABERCORN  (Baronscourt)
ALDERNEY Parish of ALDERNEY  (Saint Anne''s)
ARGYLL Dukedom of ARGYLL  (Inveraray)
ATHOLL Dukedom of ATHOLL  (Atholl)
BEAUFORT Dukedom of BEAUFORT  (Badminton)
BEDFORD Dukedom of BEDFORD  (Woburn)
BERKSHIRE County of BERKSHIRE  (Reading)
BRANDON Dukedom of BRANDON  (Brandon)
BUCCLEUCH Dukedom of BUCCLEUCH  (Melrose)
BURHOU Dependency of BURHOU  (Burhou)
CHANNEL ISLANDS German Military Government of THE CHANNEL ISLANDS  (Saint Helier)
CINQUE PORTS Ward of THE CINQUE PORTS  (Hastings + New Romney + Hythe + Dover + Sandwich + Winchelsea + Rye + Seaford)
CITY OF LONDON City and County of London : Corporation of THE CITY OF LONDON  (London)
CORNWALL Duchy of CORNWALL  (Truro)
DEVONSHIRE Dukedom of DEVONSHIRE  (Exeter)
DOGGER BANK DOGGER BANK Area  (-)
ECREHOUS THE ECREHOUS Archipelago  (La Maitresse Ile)
ENGLAND Country of ENGLAND  (London + Westminster)
FIFE Dukedom of FIFE  (Elsick House)
GLOUCESTER Dukedom of GLOUCESTER  (Gloucester)
GORDON Dukedom of GORDON  (Huntly)
GRAFTON Dukedom of GRAFTON  (Grafton Regis)
GUERNSEY Bailiwick of GUERNSEY  (Saint Peter Port)
HAMILTON Dukedom of HAMILTON  (Hamilton)
HAUTEVILLE HOUSE City of Paris Property of HAUTEVILLE HOUSE  (Victor Hugo Home)
HERM Tenantry of HERM  (Herm)
ISLE OF WIGHT Administrative County of ISLE OF WIGHT  (Newport)
ISLE-OF-PORTLAND Dukedom of PORTLAND  (Portland)
ISLES OF SCILLY ISLES OF SCILLY Rural District Council  (Hugh Town)
JERSEY Bailiwick of JERSEY  (Saint Helier)
JETHOU Tenantry of JETHOU  (Jethou)
KENSINGTON Royal Borough of KENSINGTON  (Kensington)
KENT Dukedom of KENT  (Kensington + Westminster)
LANCASTER Duchy of LANCASTER  (Lancaster)
LEEDS Dukedom of LEEDS : County Borough of Leeds  (Leeds)
LENNOX Dukedom of LENNOX  (Lennoxtown)
LIHOU Tenantry of LIHOU  (Lihou)
LUNDY ISLAND Kingdom of LUNDY ISLAND  (Lundy)
MANCHESTER Dukedom of MANCHESTER  (Manchester)
MARLBOROUGH Dukedom of MARLBOROUGH  (Woodstock)
MINQUIERS THE MINQUIERS Archipelago  (Maitresse-Ile)
MONTROSE Dukedom of MONTROSE  (Montrose)
NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE Dukedom of NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE  (Newcastle-under-Lyme)
NORFOLK Dukedom of NORFOLK  (Norwich)
NORTHERN IRELAND Country of NORTHERN IRELAND  (Belfast)
NORTHUMBRIA Dukedom of NORTHUMBERLAND  (Alnwick)
ORKNEY County of ORKNEY  (Kirkwall)
OUTER HEBRIDES OUTER HEBRIDES Islands Group  (Stornoway)
QUEENSBERRY Dukedom of QUEENSBERRY  (Drumlanrig Castle)
RICHMOND Dukedom of RICHMOND  (Westhampnett)
ROCKALL Disputed Zone of ROCKALL  (-)
ROTHESAY Dukedom of ROTHESAY  (Rothesay)
ROXBURGHE Dukedom of ROXBURGHE  (Roxburgh)
RUTLAND Dukedom of RUTLAND  (Bottesford)
SAINT ALBANS Dukedom of SAINT ALBANS  (Saint Albans)
SARK German Occupied Seigniory of SARK  (La Seigneurie)
SCOTLAND Country of SCOTLAND  (Edinburgh)
SOMERSET Dukedom of SOMERSET  (Maiden Bradley)
STIRLINGSHIRE County of Stirling : Royal Burgh of STIRLING  (Stirling)
STRATHEARN Dukedom of CONNAUGHT AND STRATHEARN  (Dunblane)
SUTHERLAND Dukedom of SUTHERLAND  (Trentham)
WALES Country of WALES  ((Westminster) + Cardiff)
WELLINGTON Dukedom of WELLINGTON  (Wellington)
WESTMINSTER Dukedom of WESTMINSTER  (Westminster)
WINDSOR Dukedom of WINDSOR : Royal Borough of Windsor  (Windsor)
ZETLAND County of ZETLAND  (Lerwick)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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