FRANCE  CHAD  Republic of CHAD [Transitional Military Council – French Forces of Operation Barkhane]
(Paris) - (Ndjamena) - (Ndjamena)


Flag or logo since 1987-09-11*
Province de l´ENNEDI-EST (fr) + Minṭaqâtu INNĪDĪ Š-ŠARQĪ : منطقة إندي الشرقية (ar)
Emblem or Symbol*

President Emmanuel Macron
(ruler of FRANCE since 2017-05-14)

General Mahamat Idriss Deby Itno Kaka
(ruler of CHAD since 2021-04-20)
Capitals & administrative places*: Amdjarass
Official & national languages: Arabic (ar) . French (fr) .

5 Territories:

AM-DJARASS AM-DJARASS Department  (Amdjarass)Local: Département d´AM-DJARASS (fr) + Muqāṭa´âtu AMJARAS : مقاطعة أمجراس (ar)  (Am-Djarass)
BAO BAO Department  (Bao)Local: Département de BAO (fr) + Muqāṭa´âtu BAW : مقاطعة باو (ar)  (Bao)
ITU ITU Department  (Itu)Local: Département d´ITOU (fr) + Muqāṭa´âtu ITU : مقاطعة إيتو (ar)  (Itou)
MURDI MURDI Department  (Juna)Local: Département du MOURDI (fr) + Muqāṭa´âtu MURDI : مقاطعة موردي (ar)  (Djona)
WADI HAWAR WADI HAWAR Department  (Bahai)Local: Département de WADI HAWAR (fr) + Muqāṭa´âtu WĀDĪ HAWĀR : مقاطعة وادي هوار (ar)  (Bahaï)

* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

CHAD Republic of CHAD [Transitional Military Council – French Forces of Operation Barkhane]  (Ndjamena)
NORTHERN CHAD Front for Change and Concord in Chad : FCCC  (Doulaki + Tanoua)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

BARH EL GAZEL BARH EL GAZEL Province  (Moussoro)
BARKHANE-CHAD French Elements in CHAD : Barkhane Operation Bases in Chad  (Sergent Chief Adji Kossei Airbase)
BATHA BATHA Province  (Ati)
BINDER Lamidate of BINDER  (Binder)
BORKU BORKU Province  (Faya-Largeau)
CAMP CAPTAIN MICHEL CROCI French Airbase of CAMP CAPTAIN MICHEL CROCI : French Elements in Chad  (Camp Captain Michel Croci)
GUERA GUERA Province  (Mongo)
KANEM KANEM Province  (Mao)
LAKE LAKE Province  (Bol)
LERE Mundang Kingdom of LERE  (Lere)
MANDUL MANDUL Province  (Kumra)
NDJAMENA NDJAMENA Province  (Ndjamena)
SALAMAT SALAMAT Province  (Am Timan)
SERGENT CHIEF ADJI KOSSEI BASE Airbase SERGENT CHIEF ADJI KOSSEI : French Elements in Chad  (Sergent Chief Adji Kossei Airbase)
SILA SILA Province  (Goz Beida)
TIBESTI TIBESTI Province  (Bardai)
WADAI State of WADDAI  (Abeche)
WADDAI WADDAI Province  (Abeche)
WADI FIRA WADI FIRA Province  (Biltine)
Notes: aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   *, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.


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UPDATED ON: ~ 2023-APR-27 ~ .