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1917-MAR-09

Zones: Timeline

RUSSIAN Empire
(Petrograd)

RUSSIAN Empire

Flag or logo since 1914-11-19*
ROSSIYSKAYA Imperiya : РОССІЙСКАЯ Имперія (ru) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Tsar Nicholas II
(ruler of RUSSIA since 1900-01-01)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Petrograd
(Petrograd)
Official & national languages: Russian (ru) .

Mainland:


EUROPEAN RUSSIA Provinces of GREAT RUSSIA  (Petrograd)

49 Regionalized Divisions:

ARCHANGELSK ARCHANGELSK Government  (Archangelsk)Local: ARKHANGEL´SKAYA Guberniya : АРХАНГЕЛЬСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Arkhangel´sk)
ASTRAKHAN ASTRAKHAN Government  (Astrakhan)Local: ASTRAKHANSKAYA Guberniya : АСТРАХАНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Astrakhan)
BESSARABIA BESSARABIA Government  (Kishinyov)Local: BESSARABSKA Guberniya : БЕССАРАБСЬКА губернiя (ru)  (Kishinëv)
CHERNIGOV CHERNIGOV Government  (Chernigov)Local: CHERNIGOVSKAYA Guberniya : ЧЕРНИГОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Chernigov)
DON COSSACKS Oblast of THE DON COSSACK Host  (Cherkassk)Local: Oblast´ VOYSKA DONSKOGO : Область ВОЙСКА ДОНСКОГО (ru)  (Cherkassk)
KALUGA KALUGA Government  (Kaluga)Local: KALUZHSKAYA Guberniya : КАЛУЖСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kaluga)
KAZAN KAZAN Government  (Kazan)Local: KAZANSKAYA Guberniya : КАЗАНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kazan)
KHARKOV KHARKOV Government  (Kharkov)Local: KHARKOVSKAYA Guberniya : ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kharkov)
KHERSON KHERSON Government  (Kherson)Local: KHERSONSKAYA Guberniya : ХЕРСОНСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Kherson)
KIEVIA KIEV Government  (Kiev)Local: KIEVSKAYA Guberniya : КІЕВСКАЯ губернія (ru)  (Kiev)
KOSTROMA KOSTROMA Government  (Kostroma)Local: KOSTROMSKAYA Guberniya : КОСТРОМСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kostroma)
KURSK KURSK Government  (Kursk)Local: KURSKAYA Guberniya : КУРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Kursk)
LOWER NOVGOROD LOWER NOVGOROD Government  (Nizhni Novgorod)Local: NIZHEGORODSKAYA Guberniya : НИЖЕГОРОДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Nizhni Novgorod)
MINSK MINSK Government  (Minsk)Local: MINSKAYA Guberniya : МИНСКАЯ губерния (ru)  (Minsk)
MOGILEV MOGILEV Government  (Mogilev)Local: MOGILEVSKAYA Guberniya : МОГИЛЕВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Mogilev)
MOSCOW MOSCOW Government  (Moscow)Local: MOSKOVSKAYA Guberniya : МОСКОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Moskva)
NOVGOROD NOVGOROD Government  (Novgorod)Local: NOVGORODSKAYA Guberniya : НОВГОРОДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Novgorod)
OLONETZ OLONETZ Government  (Petrozavodsk)Local: OLONETSKAYA Guberniya : ОЛОНЕЦКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Petrozavodsk)
OREL ORYOL Government  (Oryol)Local: ORLOVSKAYA Guberniya : ОРЛОВСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Orël)
ORENBURG ORENBURG Government  (Orenburg)Local: ORENBURGSKAYA Guberniya : ОРЕНБУРГСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Orenburg)
PENZA PENZA Government  (Penza)Local: PENZENSKAYA Guberniya : ПЕНЗЕНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Penza)
PERM PERM Government  (Perm)Local: PERMSKAYA Guberniya : ПЕРМСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Perm)
PETROGRAD PETROGRAD Government  (Petrograd)Local: PETROGRADSKAYA Guberniya : ПЕТРОГРАДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Petrograd)
PODOLIA PODOLIAN Government  (Kamenetz-Podolsk)Local: PODOLSKAYA Guberniya : ПОДОЛЬСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Kamienets-Podolskyi)
POLTAVIA Poltava Government : POLTAVIA  (Poltava)Local: POLTAVSKAYA Guberniya : ПОЛТАВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Poltava)
PSKOV PSKOV Government  (Pskov)Local: PSKOVSKAYA Guberniya : ПСКОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Pskov)
RYAZAN RYAZAN Government  (Ryazan)Local: RYAZANSKAYA Guberniya : РЯЗАНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Ryazan´)
SAMARA SAMARA Government  (Samara)Local: SAMARSKAYA Guberniya : САМАРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Samara)
SARATOV SARATOV Government  (Saratov)Local: SARATOVSKAYA Gubernia : САРАТОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Saratov)
SIMBIRSK SIMBIRSK Government  (Simbirsk)Local: SIMBIRSKAYA Guberniya : СИМБИРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Simbirsk)
SMOLENSK SMOLENSK Government  (Smolensk)Local: SMOLENSKAYA Guberniya : СМОЛЕНСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Smolensk)
STAVROPOL Caucasian Governement of STAVROPOL  (Stavropol)Local: STAVROPOLSKAYA Guberniya : СТАВРОПОЛЬСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Stavropol´)
TAMBOV TAMBOV Government  (Tambov)Local: TAMBOVSKAYA Guberniya : ТАМБОВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Tambov)
TAURIDA TAURIDA Government  (Simferopol)Local: TAVRICHESKAYA Guberniya : ТАВРИЧЕСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Simferopol)
TOBOLSK Siberian Government of TOBOLSK  (Tobolsk)Local: TOBOLSKAYA Guberniya : ТОБОЛЬСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Tobolsk)
TOMSK Siberian Governement of TOMSK  (Tomsk)Local: TOMSKAYA Guberniya : ТОМСКАЯ губе́рния (ru)  (Tomsk)
TULA TULA Government  (Tula)Local: TULSKAYA Guberniya : ТУЛЬСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Tula)
TURGAI Centro-Asian Oblast of TURGAI  (Kustanai)Local: TURGAYSKAYA Oblast´ : ТУРГАИйСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Kustanay)
TVER TVER Government  (Tver)Local: TVERSKAYA Guberniya : ТВЕРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Tver)
UFA UFA Government  (Ufa)Local: UPHIMSKAYA Guberniya : УФИ́МСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Ufa)
URALSK Centro-Asian Oblast of URALSK  (Uralsk)Local: URAL´SKAYA Oblast´ : УРАЛЬСКАЯ Область (ru)  (Ural´sk)
VITEBSK VITEBSK Government  (Vitebsk)Local: VITEBSKAYA Guberniya : ВИТЕБСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Vitebsk)
VLADIMIR VLADIMIR Government  (Vladimir)Local: VLADIMIRSKAYA Guberniya : ВЛАДИМИРСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Vladimir)
VOLHYNIA VOLHYNIAN Government  (Zhitomir)Local: VOLYNSKAYA Guberniya : ВОЛЫНСКАЯ Губерния (ru)  (Zhitomir)
VOLOGDA VOLOGDA Government  (Vologda)Local: VOLOGODSKAYA Guberniya : ВОЛОГОДСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Vologda)
VORONEZH VORONEZH Government  (Voronezh)Local: VORONEZHSKAYA Guberniya : ВОРОНЕЖСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Voronezh)
VYATKA VYATKA Government  (Vyatka)Local: VYATSKAYA Guberniya : ВЯТСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Vyatka)
YAROSLAV YAROSLAV Government  (Yaroslav)Local: YAROSLAVSKAYA Gubernia : ЯРОСЛАВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Yaroslav)
YEKATERINOSLAV YEKATERINOSLAV Government  (Ekaterinoslav)Local: YEKATERINOSLAVSKAYA Guberniya : ЕКАТЕРИНОСЛАВСКАЯ Губернiя (ru)  (Yekaterinoslav)


1 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polity

FINLAND Grand Duchy of FINLAND [in Personal Union with Russia]  (Helsingfors) Tsar Nicholas II


5 Assisted Entities

BUKHARA Emirate of BUKHARA [Russian Protectorate]  (Bukhara) Emir Muhammad Alim Khan
KHIVA Independent Khanate of KHIVA  (Khiva) Khan Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur
OUTER MONGOLIA Autonomous State of Bogd Khanate of MONGOLIA [Russian Protectorate under Chinese Suzerainty]  (Urga) Bogd Khan Jebtsundamba Khutugtu
PERSIA Sublime State of PERSIA [Neutral Sphere of the Kajar Empire of Persia]  (Tehran) Soltan Ahmad Shah Kajar
RUMANIA Kingdom of RUMANIA  (Jassy m) King Ferdinand I



19 Territories:

ABKHAZIA Autonomous ABKHAZIANS within Russia  (Sukhum)Local: SUKHUMSKIY Okrug : СУХУМСКИЙ округ (ru)  (Sukhum)
AIGUN AIGUN Russian Concession  (Aigun)Local: AYGUNSKAYA Kontsessiya : АЙГУНСКАЯ Концессия (ru)  (Aygun)
BALTIC PROVINCES Civil Administration of Livonia Estonia and Courland : BALTIC PROVINCES  (Riga)Local: PRIBALTIYSKIYE Gubernii : ПРИБАЛТИЙСКИЙ Губернии (ru)  (Riga)
CHINA EASTERN RAILWAY ZONE China Eastern Railroad Zone : CER [Russian Administration]  (Kharbin)Local: Kitaisko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga - KVZD : Китайско-Восточная Железная Дорога - КВЖД (ru)  (Kharbin)
FAR EAST Siberian Government-General of AMUR [Russian Far East]  (Khabarovsk)Local: AMURSKAYA General-Gubernatorstvo : АМУРСКАЯ Генерал-Губернаторство (ru)  (Khabarovsk)
FRANCIS JOSEPH´S LAND FRANCIS JOSEPH´S LAND Island Territory  (Northbrook Island)Local: ZEMLYA FRANTSA-IOSIFA Arkhipelag : ЗЕМЛЯ ФРАНЦА ИОСИФА Архипелаг (ru)  (Ostrov Nortbruk)
GALICIA AND BUKOVINA Government-General of GALICIA AND BUKOVINA  (Tarnopol)Local: GÁLITSKO-BUKOVÍNSKOYE Generál-Gubernátorstvo : ГА́ЛИЦКО-БУКОВИ́НСКОЕ Генера́л-Губерна́торство - GALITSÍYSKOYE General-Gubernatorstvo : ГАЛИЦИЙСКОЕ Генера́л-Губерна́торство (ru)  (Ternopol)
NEW ZEMBLA Russian Colony of the NEW ZEMBLA Territory  (Malye Karmakuly)Local: NOVAYA ZEMLYA Territoriya : НОВАЯ ЗЕМЛЯ Территория (ru) + Matka : MATKA (yrk)  (Malye Karmakuly)
NORTH PERSIA Russian Territory of NORTH PERSIA  (Astarabad)Local: Territoriya SEVERNOY PERSII : Территория СЕВЕРНОЙ ПЕРСИИ (ru) + IRAN-E SHOMALI : قلمرو شمال ایران (fa)  (Astrabad)
NORTHERN CAUCASUS Mountainous Republic of THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS : Republic of The Mountaineers  (Vladikavkaz)Local: Federatsiya Narodov SEVERNOGO KAVKAZA : Федерация народов СЕВЕРНОГО КАВКАЗА (ru)  (Vladikavkaz)
RUSSIAN HANKOW Russian Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow Russian Concession)Local: KHAN´KOU Kontsessiya : ХАНЬКОУ Концессия (ru)  (Khan´kou)
RUSSIAN KHARBIN Russian Concession of KHARBIN  (Kharbin Russian Concession)Local: KHARBIN Kontsessiya : ХАРБИН Концессия (ru)  (Kharbin)
RUSSIAN TIENTSIN TIENTSIN Russian Concession  (Tientsin Russian Concesion)Local: TYAN´TSZIN´SKAYA Kontsessiya : ТЯНЬЦЗИНЬСКАЯ Концессия (ru)  (Tyan´tszin´ Kontsessiya)
RUSSIAN TURKESTAN Government-General of TURKESTAN  (Tashkent)Local: RUSSKIY TURKESTAN General-Gubernatorstvo : РУССКИЙ ТУРКЕСТАН генерал-губернаторство (ru)  (Tashkent)
SIBERIA Siberian Government-General of IRKUTSK in Asian Russia  (Irkutsk)Local: IRKUTSKOYE General-Gubernatorstvo : ИРКУТСКОЕ Генерал-Губернаторство (ru)  (Irkutsk)
STEPPES Government-General of THE STEPPES  (Semipalatinsk)Local: STEPNOE General-Gubernatorstvo : СТЕПНОЕ генерал-губернаторство (ru)  (Semipalatinsk)
TRANSCAUCASUS Special TRANSCAUCASIAN Committee  (Tiflis)Local: Osobyi ZAKAVKZSKII Komitet : Oсобый ЗАКАВКАЗСКИЙ Комитет (ru)  (Tiflis)
WESTERN ARMENIA Armenian Provisional Government : Administration for WESTERN ARMENIA  (Van)Local: Administratsiya Zapadnoy ARMENII : Администрация ЗАПАДНОЙ АРМЕНИИ (ru) + Hayastani zhamanakavor karravarut´yun - AZAT VASPURAKAN : Հայաստանի ժամանակավոր կառավարություն - ԱԶԱՏ ՎԱՍՊՈՒՐԱԿԱՆ (hy)  (Van)
WRANGEL ISLAND Russian Territory of WRANGEL ISLAND  (Ureliki)Local: Ostrov VRANGELYA : Остров ВРАНГЕЛЯ (ru)  (Ureliki)

7 Condominiums:

FARS Russian Sphere of Influence in FARS Province : Province of Persia  (Tehran)Local: Provintsiya FARS : Провинция ФАРС (ru) + Ostān-e FARS : استان فارس (fa)  (Tehrân)
HULUNBUIR HULUNBUIR Mongolian Autonomous Province  (Khailar)Local: HU-LUN-PEI-ERH Kuan-Shang Ch´ian-Chü : 呼倫貝爾 观赏迁居 (zh) + HÖLÜN BUYIR Qota : ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (mn)  (Hai-La-Erh)
MANCHULI MANCHURIA Settlement  (Manchuria)Local: MANCHZURIYA Poseleniye : МАНЬЧЖУРИЯ Поселение (ru) + MAN-CHOU-LI Ts´un : 滿洲里村 (zh)  (Manchzhuriya)
PEKING LEGATION QUARTER Joint Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: Administrative Commission of the Diplomatic Quarter : PEKING LEGATION QUARTER (en) + Commission administrative du Quartier Diplomatique à Pékin : QUARTIER DES LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SPITZBERG ARCHIPELAGO Neutral Territory of Spitzberg Archipelago : SVALBARD ISLAND  (Longyear City)Local: Nøytralt Territorium på SVALBARD Territorium (no) + Neutralno Territoriya SPITZBERGEN : Нейтральная территория ШПИЦБЕРГЕН (ru)  (Longyear City)
SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов - SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)

Dependent Protectorate:

URIANKHAY URIANKHAY Territory [under Russian Protection]  (Byelotsarsk)Local: URYANKHAYSKIY Krai : УРЯНХАЙСКИЙ Край (ru) + Tandy URJANHAJ : Таңды УРЯНХАЙ (tyv)  (Belotsarsk)



2 Governments or Movements in Exile

KOREA-IN-EXILE Recovery Army Government of KOREA  (Vladivostok x) Banzai Movement
POLAND-IN-EXILE POLISH Kingdom in Exile  (Minsk x) Prince Pavel Yengalychev



Military entity abroad, special or locally shared:

SUVOROV MEMORIAL Suvorov Memorial near Teufelsbrucke in Uri : SUVOROV MONUMENT  (Suvorov Monument)Local: SUWOROW-DENKMAL in der Schöllenen-Schlucht (de) + Pamyatnik Suvorov : Памятник Суворов - SUVOROV MEMORIAL : СУВОРОВ МЕМОРИАЛ (ru)  (Suworow-Denkmal)


24 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR LAW CODE Conference on International AIR LAW CODE  (Paris)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
ALLIED POWERS ALLIED Entente Powers : Supreme War Council  (Versailles)
ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION British-Russian Convention : ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION  (Petrograd)
BJORKO PACT Treaty of BJORKO  (Bjorko)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
EASTERN ORTHODOXISM Orthodox Catholic Church : EASTERN ORTHODOX Church  (Phanar)
FIFA Federation of International Football Association : FIFA  (Paris)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTERNATIONAL LAW Institute of International Law : IIL  (Ghent)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
NAVAL CONFERENCE London NAVAL Conference  (London)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Petrograd)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
OPIUM International Opium Convention : IOC  (The Hague)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RACCONIGI BARGAIN RACCONIGI Bargain  (Racconigi)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TRIPLE ENTENTE TRIPLE ENTENTE Agreement  (London)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.


Other Territories or Entities within the 2022's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

EAST PRUSSIA Province of EAST PRUSSIA  (Koenigsberg in Prussia)
KARAFUTO KARAFUTO Prefecture : South Sakhalin  (Toyohara)
KURIL ISLANDS Archipelago of KURIL ISLANDS  (Shana)
PAZ RIVER PAZ RIVER Area  (Nellimo)
VICTORIA ISLAND VICTORIA ISLAND Territory  (Victoria Island)
VYBORG VYBORG Government  (Vyborg)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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