.. or a geo zone >>

RUSSIA  SOVIET UNION  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RSFSR RUSSIAN Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ARCHANGELSK Oblast ARCHANGELSK Oblast
(Moscow) - (Moscow) - (Moscow) (Moscow) (Archangelsk) (Archangelsk)

ARCTIC Island Territories

Flag or logo since 1954-01-09
Arkticheskiye Ostrova Territorii : АРКТИЧЕСКИЕ Oстрова Территории (ru)
Emblem or Symbol

Nikita Khrushchev
(ruler of SOVIET UNION since 1953-03-14)
Capital:Northbrook Island(Ostrov Nortbruk)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

2 Territories:

FRANCIS JOSEPH''S LAND FRANCIS JOSEPH''S LAND Island Territory  (Northbrook Island)Local: ZEMLYA FRANTSA-IOSIFA Arkhipelag : ЗЕМЛЯ ФРАНЦА ИОСИФА Архипелаг (ru)  (Ostrov Nortbruk)
VICTORIA ISLAND VICTORIA ISLAND Territory  (Victoria Island)Local: OSTROV VIKTORIYA Territoriya : ОСТРОВ ВИКТОРИЯ Tерритория (ru)  (Viktoriya)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FINNO-KARELIA KARELO-FINNISH Soviet Socialist Republic  (Petrozadovsk)
RUSSIA Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic : RSFSR  (Moscow)
SOVIET UNION Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : USSR  (Moscow)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ADYGHE ADYGHE Autonomous Oblast part of Krasnodar Krai  (Maykop)
ALTAY ALTAY Territory  (Barnaul)
AMUR AMUR Oblast  (Blagoveshchensk)
BASHKIRIA BASHKIR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Ufa)
BIROBIDZHAN JEWISH Autonomous Oblast  (Birobidzhan)
BURYAT-MONGOLIA BURYAT-MONGOLIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Ulan-Ude)
CHERKESSIA CHERKESS Autonomous Oblast  (Cherkessk)
CHITA CHITA Oblast  (Chita)
CHUKOTKA CHUKCHI Autonomous District  (Anadyr)
CHUVASHIA CHUVASH Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Cheboksary)
DAGHESTAN DAGHESTAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Makhachkala)
DOLGANO-NENETSIA Dolgano-Nenets National District : TAIMYR  (Dudinka)
DUBKI Enclave of DUBKI Village  (Dubki)
EVENKIA EVENKIA National District  (Tura)
IRKUTSK IRKUTSK Oblast  (Irkutsk)
KABARDIA KABARDIN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Nalchik)
KALININGRAD Enclave of the KALININGRAD Oblast  (Kaliningrad)
KAMCHATKA KAMCHATKA Oblast  (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky)
KEMEROVO KEMEROVO Oblast  (Kemerovo)
KHABAROVSK KHABAROVSK Territory  (Khabarovsk)
KHAKASSIA KHAKASSIAN Autonomous Oblast  (Abakan)
KHANTIA-MANSIA KHANTY-MANSI National District  (Khanty-Mansiysk)
KLUKHORI KLUKHORI District  (Klukhori)
KOMI-PERMYAKIA KOMI-PERMYAK National District  (Kudymkar)
KOMIA KOMI Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Syktyvkar)
KORYAKIA KORYAK Autonomous District  (Palana)
KRASNOYARSK KRASNOYARSK Territory  (Krasnonyarsk)
KURGAN KURGAN Oblast  (Kurgan)
KURIL ISLANDS Archipelago of KURIL ISLANDS  (Kurilsk)
LOWER KOLYMA LOWER KOLYMA Region  (Srednekolymsk)
MAGADAN MAGADAN Oblast  (Magadan)
MARI MARI Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yoshkar-Ola)
MARITIME MARITIME Territory : Primorie Territory  (Vladivostok)
MORDVINIA MORDVINIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Saransk)
NENETSIA NENETS National District  (Naryan-Mar)
NEW SIBERIA NOVOSIBIRSK Oblast : New Siberia Oblast  (Novosibirsk)
NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS NEW SIBERIAN ISLANDS Archipelago  (Great Lyakhovsky Island)
NEW ZEMBLA NEW ZEMBLA District  (Belushya Guba)
NORTH OSSETIA NORTH OSSETIAN Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Dzaudzhikau)
OLONETS OLONETS National Municipal District  (Olonets)
OMSK OMSK Oblast  (Omsk)
SAATSE BOOT Russian Enclave of SAATSE BOOT  (Saatse Boot)
SAKHALIN SAKHALIN Oblast  (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)
SOCHI SOCHI District  (Sochi)
STAVROPOL STAVROPOL Territory  (Stavropol)
TATARIA TATAR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Kazan)
TIUMEN TIUMEN Oblast  (Tiumen)
TOMSK TOMSK Oblast  (Tomsk)
TUVA TUVIN Autonomous Oblast  (Kyzyl)
UDMURTIA UDMURT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Izhevsk)
UPPER ALTAY UPPER ALTAY Autonomous Oblast  (Gorno-Altaysk)
UST HORDE BURYATIA UST-ORDYN BURYAT National Region : Ust Horde Buryat National Region  (Ust-Ordynsky)
WRANGEL ISLAND Soviet Colony of WRANGEL ISLAND  (Ushakovskoye)
YAKUTIA YAKUT Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  (Yakutsk)
YAMALO-NENETSIA YAMALO-NENETS National District  (Salekhard)
YANA YANA Region  (Batagay)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Martucci Dave, DMA (US). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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