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1908-AUG-13

Zones: Timeline

Kingdom of THE NETHERLANDS [Dutch Colonial Empire]
(Amsterdam a + The Hague jlr + Wassenaar r)

Kingdom of THE NETHERLANDS [Dutch Colonial Empire]

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
Koninkrijk der NEDERLANDEN (nl) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Queen Wilhelmina
(ruler of NETHERLANDS since 1900-01-01)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Amsterdam a + The Hague jlr + Wassenaar r
(Amsterdam + ´s-Gravenhage + Wassenaar)
a administrative, national or political capital (also ruler's residence)
j judicial capital
l legislative or parliamentary capital, seat of government
r ruler's residence (royal or presidential, primary or secondary)
Official & national languages: Dutch (nl) .

Mainland:


NETHERLANDS Kingdom of THE NETHERLANDS  (Amsterdam + The Hague + Wassenaar)

11 Divisions:

DRENTHE Province of DRENTHE  (Assen)Local: Provincie DRENTHE (nl)  (Assen)
FRISIA Province of FRIESLAND  (Leeuwarden)Local: Provincie FRIESLAND (nl)  (Leeuwarden)
GRONINGEN Province of GRONINGEN  (Groningen)Local: Provincie GRONINGEN (nl)  (Groningen)
GUELDERS Province of GUELDERS  (Arnhem)Local: Provincie GELDERLAND (nl)  (Arnhem)
LIMBURG Province of LIMBURG  (Maastricht)Local: Provincie LIMBURG (nl)  (Maastricht)
NORTH BRABANT Province of NORTH BRABANT  (Den Bosch)Local: Provincie NOORD-BRABANT (nl)  (´s-Hertogenbosch)
NORTH HOLLAND Province of NORTH HOLLAND  (Haarlem)Local: Provincie NOORD-HOLLAND (nl)  (Haarlem)
OVERYSSEL Province of OVERYSSEL  (Zwolle)Local: Provincie OVERIJSSEL (nl)  (Zwolle)
SOUTH HOLLAND Province of SOUTH HOLLAND  (The Hague)Local: Provincie ZUID-HOLLAND (nl)  (´s-Gravenhage)
UTRECHT Province of UTRECHT  (Utrecht)Local: Provincie UTRECHT (nl)  (Utrecht)
ZEALAND Province of ZEALAND  (Middelburg)Local: Provincie ZEELAND (nl)  (Middelburg)


1 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polity

MORESNET Belgo-Prussian Royal Commission of the Neutral Territory of MORESNET : Esperanto Free State of Friendship  (Kelmis) Dr Wilhelm Molly


1 Assisted Entity

MORESNET Belgo-Prussian Royal Commission of the Neutral Territory of MORESNET : Esperanto Free State of Friendship  (Kelmis) Dr Wilhelm Molly



3 Territories:

CURACAO AND DEPENDENCIES Dutch Colony of CURACAO AND DEPENDENCIES [Government-General of the Dutch West Indies]  (Willemstad)Local: Kolonie CURAÇAO EN ONDERHOORIGHEDEN (nl)  (Willemstad)
NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES Government-General of the NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES  (Batavia a + Buitenzorg r + Chipanas r)Local: Gouvernement-generaal van NEDERLANDS-INDIË (nl)  (Batavia + Buitenzorg + Tjipanas)
SURINAM Colony of SURINAM [Colony of Dutch Guiana]  (Paramaribo)Local: Kolonie SURINAME (nl)  (Paramaribo)

3 Condominiums:

KULANGSU INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Municipal Council of the KULANGSU INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU International Koncession (da) + Internationale Konzession von KULANGSU (de) + KULANGSU International Concession (en) + Concesión Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Concession internationale de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Concessione internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + KORONSU no Kokusai Sokai : コロンスの国際租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van KULANGSU (nl) + KULANGSU Internasjonale Konsesjon (no) + Concessão Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGSU International Koncession (sv) + KU-LANG-YÜ Kuo-Tsì T´e-Hsü Ching-Ying : 鼓浪嶼國際特許經營 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)

Dependent Protectorates:

AMANATUN Princely State of AMANATUN [Dutch Protectorate]  (Putain)Local: Raja AMANATUN (aoz) + Prinsdom AMANATOEN (nl)  (Poetain)
AMARASI Princely State of AMARASI [Dutch Protectorate]  (Baun)Local: Raja AMARASI (aaz) + Prinsdom AMARASI (nl)  (Baoen)
AMBOINA Residency of AMBOINA [Dutch Colony of Moluccas]  (Amboina)Local: Nederlandse Kolonie van Molukken : Residentie van AMBON (nl)  (Ambon)
AMFOAN Princely State of AMFOAN [Dutch Protectorate]  (Naikliu)Local: Raja AMFOAN (aoz) + Prinsdom AMFOAN (nl)  (Naiklioe)
AMUNABAN Princely State of AMUNABAN [Dutch Protectorate]  (Niki Niki)Local: Raja AMUNABAN (aoz) + Prinsdom AMOENABAN (nl)  (Niki Niki)
ASABAN Sultanate of ASABAN [Dutch Protectorate]  (Kisaran)Local: Kesultanan ASAHAN : كسولتانن اسهن (ms) + Sultanaat van ASSABAN (nl)  (Kisaran)
BAGELEN Residency of BAGELEN  (Purworedjo)Local: Residentie BAGELEN (nl)  (Poerworedjo)
BALI AND LOMBOK Residency of BALI AND LOMBOK  (Semarapura)Local: Residentie BALI EN LOMBOK (nl)  (Semarapoera)
BANCA Residency of BANCA  (Pangkal Pinang)Local: Residentie BANKA (nl)  (Pangkal-Pinang)
BANTAM Residency of BANTAM  (Serang)Local: Residentie BANTEN (nl)  (Serang)
BANYUMAS Residency of BANYUMAS  (Banyumas)Local: Residentie BANJOEMAS (nl)  (Banjoemas)
BASUKI Residency of BASUKI  (Basuki)Local: Residentie BASOEKI (nl)  (Basoeki)
BATAVIA Residency of BATAVIA  (Batavia)Local: Residentie BATAVIA (nl)  (Batavia)
BEBOKI Princely State of BEBOKI [Dutch Protectorate]  (Sufa)Local: Raja BEBOKI (aoz) + Prinsdom BEBOKI (nl)  (Soefa)
BENCOOLEN Residency of BENCOOLEN  (Bencoolen)Local: Residentie BENGKOELEN (nl)  (Bengkoelen)
BILLITON Residency of BILLITON  (Tanjung Pandan)Local: Residentie BELITOENG (nl)  (Tandjoeng Pandan)
BIMA Sultanate of BIMA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Bima)Local: Kesultanan BIMA MBOJO (bhp) + Sultanaat BIMA (nl)  (Bima)
CHERIBON Residency of CHERIBON  (Cheribon)Local: Residentie TJERIBON (nl)  (Tjeribon)
DELI Sultanate of DELI [Dutch Protectorate]  (Medan)Local: Kesultanan DELI DARUL MAIMOON : كسلتانن دلي دارالميمون (ind) + Sultanaat DELI (nl)  (Medan)
DOMPU Princely State of the Sultanate of DOMPU [Dutch Protectorate]  (Dompu)Local: Kesultanan DOMPO (bhp) + Sultanaat DOMPOE (nl)  (Dompoe)
EAST COAST OF SUMATRA Residency of EAST COAST OF SUMATRA  (Medan)Local: Residentie OOST-KUST VAN SOEMATRA (nl)  (Medan)
INSANA Princely State of INSANA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Maubesi)Local: Loro INSANA (aoz) + Prinsdom INSANA (nl)  (Maoebesi)
JAMBI Residency of JAMBI  (Jambi)Local: Residentie DJAMBI (nl)  (Djambi)
JAPARA Residency of JAPARA  (Japara)Local: Residentie DJAPARA (nl)  (Djapara)
JAVA Dutch Colony of JAVA  (Batavia)Local: Kolonie van JAVA (nl)  (Batavia)
JOGJAKARTA Autonomous Government of JOGJAKARTA [Dutch Residency]  (Jogjakarta)Local: Gouvernement JOGJAKARTA (nl)  (Djokjakarta)
KARANGASEM Princely State of KARANG ASEM [Dutch Protectorate]  (Karang Asem)Local: Anak Agoeng KARANG ASEM (ban) + Prinsdom KARANG ASEM (nl)  (Karang Asem)
KEDIRI Residency of KEDIRI  (Kediri)Local: Residentie KEDIRI (nl)  (Kediri)
KEDOO Residency of KEDOO  (Magelang)Local: Residentie KEDOE (nl)  (Magelang)
KERAWANG Residency of KERAWANG  (Purwakarta)Local: Residentie KERAWANG (nl)  (Poerwakarta)
KORBAFO Princely State of KORBAFO [Dutch Protectorate]  (Olafulihaa)Local: Manek KORBAFFO (twu) + Prinsdom KORBAFO (nl)  (Olafuliha´a)
KUBU Princely State of KUBU [Dutch Protectorate]  (Kubu)Local: Tuan Besar KUBU (kvb) + Prinsdom KOEBOE (nl)  (Koeboe)
KUTEI Sultanate of KUTEI [Netherlands Protectorate]  (Tangga Arung)Local: Sultanaat KOETEI KARTANEGARA (nl) + Kasultanan KUTAI KARTANEGARA (vkt) + Kasultanan KUTAI KARTANEGARA (mqg)  (Tangga Aroeng)
LAMPUNG DISTRICTS Residency of LAMPUNG DISTRICTS  (Tanjung-Karang Teluk-Betung)Local: Residentie LAMPOENGSCHE DISTRICHEN (nl)  (Tandjoeng-Karang Teloek-Betoeng)
LANDAK Princely State of LANDAK [Dutch Protectorate of the Landak Sultanate]  (Ngabang)Local: Kasultanan LANDAK (ms) + Panembahan LANDAK (byd) + Sultanaat LANDAK (nl)  (Ngabang)
LANGKAT Princely State of the Sultanate of LANGKAT Abode of Peace [Dutch Protectorate]  (Tanjung Pura)Local: Negeri Kesultanan LANGKAT DARUL AMAN (ind) + Sultanaat LANGKAT (nl)  (Tandjoeng-Poera)
LARANTUKA Princely State of LARANTUKA [Dutch Protectorate of the Princely State of Flores]  (Larantuka)Local: Koninkrijk LARANTOEKA (nl) + Tana Nagi LAMAKÉRA (lrt)  (Larantoeka)
LIAE Princely State of LIAE [Dutch Protectorate]  (Eilogu)Local: Prinsdom LIAE (nl) + LIAE (hvn)  (Eilogu)
LINGGA RIOW AND DEPENDENCIES Sultanate of LINGGA RIOW AND ITS DEPENDENCIES  (Daik + Penyengat Inderasakti)Local: Sultanaat van LINGGA RIAU EN ONDERHOORIGHEDEN (nl) + Kesultanan RIAU-LINGGA : کسلطانن رياوليڠݢ (zlm)  (Daik + Penyengat Inderasakti)
LITTLE SONBAI Princely State of the Kingdom of LITTLE SONBAI [Dutch Protectorate]  (Kupang)Local: Liurai SONBAI KECIL (heg) + Prinsdom SONBAI KECIL (nl)  (Koepang)
MADIUN Residency of MADIUN  (Madiun)Local: Residentie MADIOEN (nl)  (Madioen)
MADURA Residency of MADURA  (Pamekasan)Local: Residentie MADOERA (nl)  (Pamekasan)
MATAN Princely State of MATAN [Dutch Protectorate]  (Ketapang)Local: Panembahan MATAN (dyk) + Prinsdom MATAN (nl)  (Ketapang)
MEMPAWA Princely State of MEMPAWA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Mempawa)Local: Negara MAMPAWA (ms) + Panembahan MAMPAWA (bjn) + Panembahan MAMPAWA (bjn) + Prinsdom MEMPAWAH (nl)  (Mampawa)
MENADO Residency of MENADO  (Menado)Local: Residentie MENADO (nl)  (Menado)
MESARA Princely State of MESARA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Tana Jawa)Local: Prinsdom MESARA (nl) + MEHARA (hvn)  (Tana Jawa)
NDONA Princely State of NDONA [under Dutch Protection]  (Lokoboko)Local: Prinsdom NDONA (nl) + Raja NDONA (ljl)  (Lokoboko)
PAKALONGAN Residency of PAKALONGAN  (Pakalongan)Local: Residentie PAKALONGAN (nl)  (Pakalongan)
PALEMBANG Residency of PALEMBANG  (Palembang)Local: Residentie PALEMBANG (nl)  (Palembang)
PASURUWAN Residency of PASURUWAN  (Pasuruwan)Local: Residentie PASOEROEAN (nl)  (Pasoroean)
PONTIANAK Sultanate of PONTIANAK [Dutch Protectorate of Kadriah Sultanate]  (Pontianak)Local: Kasultanan Kadriah : Kasultanan POENTIANAK (ms) + Sultanaat POENTIANAK (nl)  (Poentianak)
PROBOLINGGO Residency of PROBOLINGGO  (Probolinggo)Local: Residentie PROBOLINGGO (nl)  (Probolinggo)
RAIJUA Princely State of RAIJUA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Ledeunu)Local: Prinsdom RAIJUA (nl) + Rai Jua : RAIJUA (hvn)  (Ledeunu)
REMBANG Residency of REMBANG  (Rembang)Local: Residentie REMBANG (nl)  (Rembang)
SAMARANG Residency of SAMARANG  (Samarang)Local: Residentie SAMARANG (nl)  (Samarang)
SAMBAS SAMBAS Sultanate [Dutch Protectorate]  (Sambas)Local: Kasultanan SAMBAS (ms) + Kesultanan SAMBAS (id) + SAMBAS Sultanaat (nl)  (Sambas)
SANGGAU Princely State of SANGGAU [Dutch Protectorate]  (Sanggau)Local: Panembahan SANGGAU : كرجاان سڠاو (scg) + Kerajaan SANGGAU : كرجاان سڠاو (ms) + Prinsdom SANGOUW (nl)  (Sanggaoe)
SAVU ISLANDS States of SAVU ISLANDS [Dutch Protectorates]  (Seba)Local: Eiland SAVOE (nl) + Raja HAWU (hvn)  (Seba)
SEBA Princely State of SEBA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Seba)Local: Prinsdom SEBA (nl) + Mèb´a : HEVA (hvn)  (Seba)
SEKADAU Princely State of SEKADAU [Dutch Protectorate]  (Sekadau)Local: Panembahan SEKADOU (iba) + Kerajaan SEKADAU (ms) + Prinsdom SEKADOUW (nl)  (Sekadouw)
SIAK SERI INDRAPURA Princely State of SIAK SERI INDRAPURA LAND OF GRACE [Dutch Protectorate]  (Siak Seri Indrapura)Local: Kesultanan SIAK SRI INDERAPURA DARUL RIDZUAN : كسولتانن سياق سري ايندراڤور (ms) + Sultanaat van SIAK (nl)  (Siak Seri Indrapura)
SIKKA Princely State of SIKKA [Dutch Protectorate]  (Maumere)Local: Prinsdom SIKKA (nl) + Raja SIKA (ski)  (Maoemere)
SIMPANG Princely State of SIMPANG [Dutch Protectorate]  (Teluk Melano)Local: Panembahan SIMPANG (ms) + Staat SIMPANG (nl)  (Teloek Melano)
SINTANG Princely State of SINTANG [Dutch Protectorate]  (Sintang)Local: Panembahan SINTANG (ms) + Staat SINTANG (nl)  (Sintang)
SUKADANA Princely State of SUKADANA [Dutch Protectorate of the Kingdom of Sukadana]  (Sukadana)Local: Panembahan SUKADANA (ms) + SOEKADANA Staat (nl)  (Soekadana)
SURABAJA Residency of SURABAJA  (Surabaia)Local: Residentie SOERABAJA (nl)  (Soerabaia)
TAEBENU Princely State of TAEBENU [Dutch Protectorate]  (Taebenu)Local: Fettor TA EBENU (tet) + Prinsdom TAEBENU (nl)  (Taebenu)
TANAH KUNU LIMA Princely State of TANAH KUNU LIMA [under Dutch Protection]  (Walowaru)Local: Prinsdom TANAH KUNU LIMA (nl) + Raja TANAH KUNU LIMA (ljl)  (Walowaru)
TAYAN Princely State of TAYAN [Dutch Protectorate]  (Tayan)Local: Kerajaan TAYAN (ms) + Panembahan TAYAN (rir) + Prinsdom TAJAN (nl)  (Tajan)
TEGAL Residency of TEGAL  (Tegal)Local: Residentie TEGAL (nl)  (Tegal)
TERNATE Residency of TERNATE [Dutch Colony of Moluccas]  (Ternate)Local: Nederlandse Kolonie van Molukken : Residentie TERNATE (nl)  (Ternate)
TERUMON Princely State of TERUMON [Dutch Protectorate]  (Terumon)Local: Staat TROEMON (nl) + Kerajaan TERUMON (ind)  (Teroemon)
TIDORE Princely State of the Sultanate of TIDORE [Council of Nobles - Dutch Protectorate]  (Tidore)Local: Prinsdom TIDORE (nl) + Kesultanan TIDORE (ms) + Kiema Kolano TIDORE (tvo)  (Tidore)
TIMOR AND DEPENDENCIES Residency of TIMOR AND DEPENDENCIES  (Kupang)Local: Residentie TIMOR EN ONDERHOORIGHEDEN (nl)  (Koepang)
TIMU Princely State of TIMU [Dutch Protectorate]  (Bolou)Local: Prinsdom TIMU (nl) + DIMU (hvn)  (Bolou)
WAIWIKU-WEHALI Princely State of WAIWIKU-WEHALI [Dutch Protectorate]  (Atambua)Local: Prinsdom WEWIKU-WEHALI (nl) + Liurai WEHALI (tet) + Liurai WEHALI (kem)  (Atamboea)
WESTERN BORNEO WESTERN DEPARTMENT OF BORNEO Residency  (Pontianak)Local: Residentie WESTER-AFDEELING VAN BORNEO (nl)  (Poentianak)



17 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
FIFA Federation of International Football Association : FIFA  (Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GREAT POWERS General Act of the Conference of ALGECIRAS  (Algeciras)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
INTERNATIONAL LAW Institute of International Law : IIL  (Ghent)
MARITIME CONFERENCE International MARITIME Conference  (The Hague)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Saint Petersburg)
PUBLIC HYGIENE Rome Arrangement for the International Office of Public Hygiene : IOPH  (Rome)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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