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1988-DEC-20

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Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN

Flag or logo since 1970-01-01*
Coalition of Developing Countries : GROUP OF SEVENTY-SEVEN - G77 (en) Organisation
Emblem or Symbol*

President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
(ruler of TUNISIA since 1987-11-07)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: New York City
(New York City)
Official & national languages: English (en) .






129 Members (excluding the associate or suspended members but including the countries represented on their behalf)   [The rulers are not necessarily the representatives in the organisation. ] :

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (Abu Dhabi ar + Al Karama f) President Sheikh Zayed II bin Sultan Al Nahyan
AFGHANISTAN (Kabul) President Mohammad Najibullah
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA (Saint John´s q) Queen Elizabeth II
ANGOLA (Luanda) President Jose Eduardo dos Santos
ARGENTINE (Buenos Aires a + Olivos r) President Raul Alfonsin
BARBADOS (Bridgetown) Queen Elizabeth II
BANGLADESH (Dhaka) President Hossain Mohammad Ershad
BURKINA FASO (Ouagadougou) President Blaise Compaore
BAHRAIN (Manamah) Emir Sheikh Isa II bin Salman Al Khalifah
BURUNDI (Bujumbura) President Pierre Buyoya
BENIN (Porto Novo a + Cotonou lnq) President Mathieu Kerekou
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM (Bandar Seri Begawan) Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
BOLIVIA (Sucre cj + La Paz eir) President Victor Paz Estenssoro
BRAZIL (Brasilia) President Jose Sarney
BAHAMAS (Nassau) Queen Elizabeth II
BHUTAN (Thimphu a + Paro s) King Jigme Singye Wangchuk
BOTSWANA (Gaborone) President Quett Masire
BELIZE (Belmopan) Queen Elizabeth II
ZAIRE (Kinshasa) President Mobutu Sese Seko
CENTRAL-AFRICA (Bangui) President Andre-Dieudonne Kolingba
CONGO (Brazzaville a + Pointe Noire n) President Denis Sassou-Nguesso
COTE D´IVOIRE (Yamoussoukro a + Abidjan dln) President Felix Houphouet-Boigny
CHILE (Santiago of Chile a + Valparaiso l + Vina del Mar s) Augusto Pinochet
CAMEROON (Yaounde) President Paul Biya
CHINA (Beijing) Deng Xiaoping the Little Helmsman
COLOMBIA (Bogota) President Virgilio Barco Vargas
COSTA RICA (San Jose) President Oscar Arias Sanchez
CUBA (Havana) Supreme Leader Fidel Castro
CAPE VERDE (Praia) President Aristides Pereira
CYPRUS (Nicosia) President Georgios Vasiliou
JIBUTI (Jibuti) President Hassan Gouled Aptidon
DOMINICA (Roseau) President Sir Clarence Augustus Seignoret
DOMINICAN (Santo Domingo de Guzman) President Joaquin Balaguer
ALGERIA (Algiers a + El Biar d + El Mouradia r) President Chadli Bendjedid
ECUADOR (San Francisco of Quito) President Rodrigo Borja Cevallos
EGYPT (Cairo a + Alexandria r) President Hosni Mubarak
ETHIOPIA (Addis Ababa) President Mengistu Haile Mariam
FIJI (Suva) President Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau
MICRONESIA (Kolonia on Ponape) President John Richard Haglelgam
GABON (Libreville) President Omar Bongo
GRENADA (Saint George´s) Queen Elizabeth II
GHANA (Accra) Jerry Rawlings
GAMBIA (Banjul) President Sir Dawda Jawara
GUINEA (Conakry) President Lansana Conte
EQUATORIAL GUINEA (Malabo a) President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
GUATEMALA (Guatemala City) President Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo
GUINEA-BISSAU (Bissau) President Joao Bernardo Vieira
GUYANA (Georgetown) President Desmond Hoyte
HONDURAS (Tegucigalpa a + Comayaguela c) President Jose Azcona del Hoyo
HAITI (Port Au Prince) President Prosper Avril
INDONESIA (Jakarta a + Bogor r + Chipanas r + Yogyakarta r + Tampaksiring r) President Suharto
INDIA (New Delhi a + Simla s + Bolarum w) President Ramaswamy Venkataraman
IRAQ (Baghdad) President Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti
IRAN (Tehran) Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
JAMAICA (Kingston) Queen Elizabeth II
JORDAN (Amman) King Hussein I
KENYA (Nairobi) President Daniel Arap Moi
COMOROS (Moroni) Ahmed Abdallah
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS (Basseterre) Queen Elizabeth II
SOUTH KOREA (Seoul a) President Roh Tae-Woo
KUWAIT (Kuwait City) Emir Sheikh Jabir III Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah
LAOS (Vientiane) Kaysone Phomvihane
LEBANON (Beirut-East) Selim Ahmed Al-Hoss
SAINT LUCIA (Castries) Queen Elizabeth II
SRI LANKA (Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte al + Colombo ejnr + Kandy r) President Junius Richard Jayawardene
LIBERIA (Monrovia) President Samuel Doe
LESOTHO (Maseru) King Moshoeshoe II
LIBYA (Tripoli a) Guide Muammar Gaddafi
MOROCCO (Rabat a) King Hassan II
MADAGASCAR (Tananarive) President Didier Ratsiraka
MARSHALL ISLANDS (Dalap-Uliga-Darrit on Majuro) President Amata Kabua
MALI (Bamako) President Moussa Traore
BURMA (Rangoon) Saw Maung
MAURITANIA (Nouakchott) Colonel Maaouya Ould Sid´Ahmed Taya
MALTA (Valletta a + Attard r + Siggiewi s) Paul Xuereb
MAURITIUS (Port Louis a + Reduit in Moka r) Queen Elizabeth II
MALDIVES (Male) President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom
MALAWI (Lilongwe a + Zomba b) President Hastings Banda
MEXICO (Mexico City) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari
MALAYSIA (Kuala Lumpur) Sultan Mahmud Iskandar
MOZAMBIQUE (Maputo) President Joaquim Chissano
NIGER (Niamey) Ali Saibou
NIGERIA (Lagos a + Abuja f) President Ibrahim Babangida
NICARAGUA (Managua) President Daniel Ortega
NEPAL (Kathmandu) Maharajah Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev
NAURU (Yaren q) President Hammer DeRoburt
NEW ZEALAND (Wellington) Queen Elizabeth II
OMAN (Muscat) Sultan Qaboos bin Said
PANAMA (Panama City) General Manuel Noriega
PERU (Lima a + Arequipa d) President Alan Garcia
PAPUA NEW GUINEA (Port Moresby) Queen Elizabeth II
PHILIPPINES (Manila acr + Quezon City b + Pasay City b) President Cory Aquino
PAKISTAN (Islamabad) President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
PARAGUAY (Assumption) President Alfredo Stroessner
QATAR (Doha) Emir Sheikh Khalifah bin Hamad Al Thani
ROMANIA (Bucharest) Nicolae Ceausescu
RWANDA (Kigali) President Juvenal Habyarimana
SAUDI ARABIA (Riyadh) King Fahd
SOLOMON ISLANDS (Honiara) Queen Elizabeth II
SEYCHELLES (Port Victoria) President France-Albert Rene
SUDAN (Khartoum) Ahmad Al-Mirghani
SINGAPORE (Singapore) President Wee Kim Wee
SIERRA LEONE (Freetown) President Joseph Saidu Momoh
SENEGAL (Dakar) President Abdou Diouf
SOMALIA (Mogadishu) President Muhammad Siad Barre
SURINAME (Paramaribo) President Ramsewak Shankar
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE (Sao Tome) President Manuel Pinto da Costa
EL SALVADOR (San Salvador) President Jose Napoleon Duarte
SYRIA (Damascus) President Hafez Al-Assad
SWAZILAND (Mbabane aj + Lobamba lr) King Mswati III
CHAD (Ndjamena) President Hissene Habre
TOGO (Lome) President Gnassingbe Eyadema
THAILAND (Bangkok) King Rama IX Bhumibol Adulyadej
TUNISIA (Tunis) President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
TONGA (Nukualofa) King Taufa´ahau Tupou IV
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (Port-of-Spain) President Noor Hassanali
TANZANIA (Dar Es Salaam a + Dodoma f) President Ali Hassan Mwinyi
UGANDA (Kampala a + Entebbe r) President Yoweri Museveni
URUGUAY (Montevideo) President Julio Maria Sanguinetti Coirolo
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES (Kingstown) Queen Elizabeth II
VENEZUELA (Caracas) President Jaime Lusinchi
VIETNAM (Hanoi) Nguyen Van Linh
VANUATU (Port Vila) President Ati George Sokomanu
WESTERN SAMOA (Apia) Malietoa Tanumafili II
KAMPUCHEA-IN-EXILE (Beijing) President Norodom Sihanouk
NORTH YEMEN (Sanaa) President Ali Abdullah Saleh
YUGOSLAVIA (Belgrade) President Stipe Shuvar
ZAMBIA (Lusaka) President Kenneth Kaunda
ZIMBABWE (Harare) President Robert Mugabe



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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