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2018-NOV-09

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EUROPEAN UNION  ITALY 
  
(Brussels) - (Rome) -

Italian Republic : Republic of ITALY

Flag or logo since 2004-06-02
Repubblica ITALIANA (it)
Emblem or Symbol

President Donald Tusk
(ruler of EUROPEAN UNION since 2014-12-01)

President Sergio Mattarella
(ruler of ITALY since 2015-02-03)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Rome(Roma)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Metropole:


ITALY ITALIAN Republic  (Rome)

15 Metropolitan Divisions:

ABRUZZO Region ABRUZZO  (Aquila)Local: Regione ABRUZZO (it)  (L''Aquila)
APULIA Region APULIA  (Bari)Local: Regione PUGLIA (it)  (Bari)
BASILICATA Region BASILICATA  (Potenza)Local: Regione BASILICATA (it)  (Potenza)
CALABRIA Region CALABRIA  (Catanzaro + Reggio Calabria)Local: Regione CALABRIA (it) + Periochí KALAVRÍA : Περιοχή ΚΑΛΑΒΡΙΑ (el) + Rajon KALAVRÌ (sq)  (Catanzaro + Reggio di Calabria)
CAMPANIA Region CAMPANIA  (Naples)Local: Regione CAMPANIA (it)  (Napoli)
EMILIA-ROMAGNA Region EMILIA-ROMAGNA  (Bologna)Local: Regione EMILIA-ROMAGNA (it)  (Bologna)
LATIUM Region LATIUM  (Rome)Local: Regione LAZIO (it)  (Roma)
LIGURIA Region LIGURIA  (Genoa)Local: Regione LIGURIA (it)  (Genova)
LOMBARDY Region LOMBARDY  (Milan)Local: Regione LOMBARDIA (it)  (Milano)
MARCHES Region MARCHES  (Ancona)Local: Regione MARCHE (it)  (Ancona)
MOLISE Region MOLISE  (Campobasso)Local: Regione MOLISE (it)  (Campobasso)
PIEDMONT Region PIEDMONT  (Turin)Local: Regione PIEMONTE (it)  (Torino)
TUSCANY Region TUSCANY  (Florence)Local: Regione TOSCANA (it)  (Firenze)
UMBRIA Region UMBRIA  (Perugia)Local: Regione UMBRIA (it)  (Perugia)
VENETIA Region VENETIA  (Venice)Local: Regione VENETO (it)  (Venezia)



4 Assisted Entities

HOLY SEE State of Vatican City : HOLY SEE  (Vatican) Pope Francis I
KOSOVO Independent Republic of KOSOVO (UNMIK-European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo)  (Prishtina) President Hashim Thaci
ORDER OF MALTA Sovereign Military Order of SAINT JOHN OF JERUSALEM OF RHODES AND OF MALTA  (Magistral Palace + Via Condotti) Grandmaster Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto
SAN MARINO Most Serene Republic of SAN MARINO  (San Marino) Captains-Regent



3 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

EAST SINAI Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D  (Zone D)Local: Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D (en) + MIZRAHI SINAI : מזרח סיני (he) + SINA'' ASH-SHARQ : شرق سيناء (ar)  (Zone D)
EUNAVFOR ATALANTA European Naval Force in Somalia Coasts : EUNAVFOR ATALANTA  ((Djibouti))Local: European Naval Force in Somalia Coasts : EUNAVFOR ATALANTA (en) + Force navale européenne sur les Côtes de Somalie : EUNAVFOR ATALANTE (fr)  ((Djibouti))
SINAI PENINSULA Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones  (Rome + El Gorah + Sharm El-Sheikh)Local: Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones (en) + SINAI : القوة متعددة الجنسيات والمراقبون (ar)  (Roma + El Gorah + Sharm Ash-Shaykh)

Other notable Territory in Africa:

PELAGIAN ISLANDS Commune of Lampedusa and Linosa : PELAGIAN ISLANDS Archipelago  (Lampedusa + Linosa)Local: Comune di Lampedusa e Linosa : Arcipelago delle ISOLE PELAGIE (it)  (Lampedusa + Linosa)

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

CHRISTIAN HOLY SITES Properties of the Roman Catholic Church in Israel : CHRISTIAN HOLY SITES  (Holy Christian Sites)Local: Proprietè del SANTO SITI CRISTIANI nel Israele (it) + ATRIM KEDOSHIM INZROT : מאפיינים של הכנסייה הקתולית בישראל : אתרים קדושים לנצרות (he) + AL-OMAKEN AL-MEKDSH AL-CHRISTAH : خصائص الكنيسة الكاثوليكية الرومانية في إسرائيل : الأماكن المقدسة المسيحية (ar)  (Santo Siti Cristiani)
MINHAD Italian Task Force Air at AL MINHAD Air Base  (Minhad)Local: Task Force Air - AL MINHAD Air Base (en) + Task Force Air - Base Aerea AL MINHAD (it)  (Al-Minhad)

5 Territories in Europe:

AOSTA VALLEY Autonomous Region of AOSTA VALLEY  (Aosta)Local: Région autonome du VAL D''AOSTE (fr) + Regione Autonoma della VALLE D''AOSTA (it)  (Aoste)
FRIULIA-JULIAN VENETY FRIULIA-JULIAN VENETY Autonomous Region  (Trieste)Local: Regione Autonoma FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA (it) + Regjon Autonome FRIÛL-VIGNESIE JULIE (fur) + Autonome Region FRIAUL-JULISCH VENETIEN (de) + FURLANIJA JULIJSKA Krajina (sl)  (Trieste)
SARDINIA SARDINIA Autonomous Region  (Cagliari)Local: Region Autonoma della SARDEGNA (it) + Regione Autònoma de SARDIGNA (sc)  (Cagliari)
SICILY SICILIAN Autonomous Region  (Palermo)Local: Regione Autonoma SICILIANA (it)  (Palermo)
TRENTINO-SOUTH TYROL TRENTINO-SOUTH TYROL Autonomous Region : Trentino-Upper Adige Autonomous Region  (Trent)Local: Regione Autonoma TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE (it) + Autonome Region TRENTINO-SÜDTIROL (de) + Region Autonoma TRENTIN-SÜDTIROL (lld)  (Trento)

6 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

AIRCOM Allied Air Command : AIRCOM  (Ramstein)Local: Allied Air Command : AIRCOM (en) + Commandement Aérien Allié : AIRCOM (fr)  (Ramstein)
NATO ITALY NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Italy  (Solbiate Olona)Local: NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Italy (en)  (Solbiate Olona)
NATO NAPLES Allied Joint Force Command NAPLES  (Naples)Local: Allied Joint Force Command NAPLES (en) + Commandement de la Force Interarmées à NAPLES (fr)  (Napoli)
PADANIA Provisional Government of the Federal Republic of PADANIA  (Milan + Venice + Vicenza)Local: Governo Provvisorio della Repubblica Federale della PADANIA (it)  (Milano + Venezia + Vicenza)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Settlements in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements de la France à ROME ET à LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)

Other notable Territories in Europe:

ALGHERO Sub-Region of ALGHERO  (Alghero)Local: Sub-Regione di ALGHERO (it) + Regió de L''ALGUER (ca) + Region de S''ALIGHERA (sc)  (Alghero)
ARBERIA ITALO-ALBANIAN Community  (Lungro + Piana of the Albanians)Local: Comunità ITALO-ALBANESE (it) + Komuniteti ARBËRESHË (aae)  (Lungro + Piana degli Albanesi)
BOLZANO-SOUTH TYROL Autonomous Province of BOLZANO-SOUTH TYROL  (Bolzano)Local: Autonome Provinz BOZEN-SÜTTIROL (de) + Provincia Autonoma di BOLZANO-ALTO ADIGE (it) + Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan-Südtirol : BULSAN-SÜDTIROL (lld)  (Bozen)
CALABRIA Region CALABRIA  (Catanzaro + Reggio Calabria)Local: Regione CALABRIA (it) + Periochí KALAVRÍA : Περιοχή ΚΑΛΑΒΡΙΑ (el) + Rajon KALAVRÌ (sq)  (Catanzaro + Reggio di Calabria)
CAMPIONE OF ITALY Enclave of the Commune of CAMPIONE OF ITALY  (Campione of Italy)Local: Comune di CAMPIONE D''ITALIA (it)  (Campione d''Italia)
FRANCOPROVENCALS FRANCOPROVENCAL Communities in Italy  (Ceres + Faeto)Local: Comunità FRANCOPROVENZALE in Italia (it) + Comunôtâts FRANCOPROVENÇÂLS en Étalia (frp)  (Céres + Faeto)
FRENCH SETTLEMENT IN LORETO Pious French Settlement in Loreto : National Chaplaincy of France in LORETO  (National Chaplaincy of France in Loreto)Local: Pieux Établissement français à Lorette : Chapellenie nationale de France à LORETTE (fr) + Pio Stabilimento francese in Loreto : Cappellania Nazionale di Francia a LORETO (it)  (Chapellenie Nationale de France à Lorette)
FRENCH SETTLEMENTS IN ROME Pious French Settlements in ROME  (Trinity of the Mounts + Saint Louis of the French + Saint Nicholas of the Lorrainers + Saint Ivo of the Bretons + Saints Claudius and Andrew of the Burgundians)Local: Pieux Établissements de la France à ROME (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA (it)  (La Trinité-des-Monts + Saint-Louis-des-Français + Saint-Nicolas-des-Lorrains + Saint-Yves-des-Bretons + Saint-Claude-et-André-des-Francs-Comtois-de-Bourgogne)
LADINIA Region of LADINIA  (Ampezzo)Local: Regione di LADINIA (it) + Region di LADINO (lld)  (Cortina d''Ampezzo)
LIVIGNO Enclave of the Commune of LIVIGNO  (Livigno)Local: Comune di LIVIGNO (it)  (Livigno)
LOMBARDY Region LOMBARDY  (Milan)Local: Regione LOMBARDIA (it)  (Milano)
MOLISE CROATIA Slavomolisano Region : MOLISE CROATIA  (Montemitro + Acquaviva Collecroce + Saint Felix of the Molise)Local: Regione CROATA MOLISANA (it) + Na-Našu : NA-NAŠO (svm)  (Montemitro + Acquaviva Collecroce + San Felice del Molise)
OCCITAN VALLEYS Region of OCCITAN VALLEYS  (Entracque)Local: Regione del VALLI OCCITANE (it) + Region de VALADAS OCCITANAS (oc)  (Entràiguas)
ROME CAPITAL Special Territory of ROME CAPITAL  (Rome)Local: Territorio Speciale di ROMA CAPITALE (it)  (Roma)
SALENTINE GREECE Union of Communes of SALENTINE GREECE  (Calimera)Local: Unione dei Comuni della GRECÌA SALENTINA (it) + I Énosi ton Póleon tis NKRÉTSIA SALENTÍNA : Η Ένωση των πόλεων της ΓΚΡΕΤΣΙΑ ΣΑΛΕΝΤΙΝΑ (el)  (Calimera)
TRENTINE Autonomous Province of TRENTINE  (Trent)Local: Provincia Autonoma di TRENTO (it) + Autonome Provinz TRIENT (de) + Provinzia Autonoma de TRENT (lld) + Autonoma Provinz vo TRIA (cim) + Autonome Provinz va TREA''T (mhn)  (Trento)
TRIESTE City of TRIESTE  (Trieste)Local: Città di TRIESTE (it) + Mesto TRST (sl)  (Trieste)
VENETIA Region VENETIA  (Venice)Local: Regione VENETO (it)  (Venezia)


2 Micronations

FILETTINO Principality of FILETTINO  (Filettino) Prince Regent Carlo Taormina
SEBORGA Principality of SEBORGA  (Seborga) Prince Nicolas I



105 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN BANK African Development Bank : AFDB  (Tunis)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  (Buenos Aires)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (Brussels + Singapore)
ASIAN BANK Asian Development Bank : ADB  (Mandaluyong City)
ASIAN INFRASTRUCTURE BANK Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank : AIIB  (Beijing)
CARIBBEAN BANK Caribbean Development Bank : CDB  (Bridgetown)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CENTRAL EUROPE Central European Initiative : CEI  (Trieste)
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research : CERN  (Meyrin)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
CIVIL STATUS International Commission of Civil Status : ICCS  (Strasbourg)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
DEVELOPMENT LAW International Development Law Organization : IDLO  (Rome)
EAST-WEST Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe : OSCE  (Vienna)
ENERGY International Energy Charter : IEC  (Woluwe-Saint Lambert)
ESA European Space Agency : ESA  (Paris)
EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites : EUMETSAT  (Darmstadt)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EURO-ATLANTIC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council : EAPC  (Sintra)
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation : EUROCONTROL  (Brussels-Haren)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
EUROPEAN PATENT European Patent Organisation : EPORG  (Munich)
EUROPEAN SCIENCE European Science Foundation : ESF  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY European Southern Observatory : ESO  (Garching near Munich)
EUROSYSTEM European Central Bank : ECB  (Frankfort on the Main)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FIEP Association of the European and Mediterranean Police Forces and Gendarmeries with Military Status : FIEP  (Toulon)
FINANCE Financial Stability Board : FSB  (Basle)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVEN GROUP OF SEVEN Industrialized Nations  (La Malbaie)
GROUP OF TWENTY GROUP OF TWENTY Summits  (Buenos Aires + Cancun)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HUMANITARIAN LAW International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission : IHFFC  (Berne)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMSO International Mobile Satellite Organization : IMSO  (London)
INTER-AMERICAN BANK Inter-American Development Bank : IADB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Grand Saconnex)
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT International Criminal Court : ICCT  (The Hague)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
IOM International Organization for Migration : IOM Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency : IRENA  (Masdar City)
ITALY-LATIN AMERICA Italian-Latin American Institute : ILAI  (Rome)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
MEDITERRANEAN Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean : PAM  (Saint Julian''s)
MEDITERRANEAN UNION Union for the Mediterranean : UFM  (Barcelona)
MISSILES Missile Technology Control Regime : MTCR  (Paris)
NATO ASSEMBLY North Atlantic Treaty Organization Parliamentary Assembly : NATO-PA  (Brussels)
NATURE CONSERVATION International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE North Atlantic Treaty Organization : NATO  (Brussels)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
NUCLEAR TEST BAN Provisional Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization : CTBTO  (Vienna)
OCCAR Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation : OCCAR  (Bonn)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PANEUROPA International Paneuropean Union : IPU  (Vienna)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE Regional Cooperation Council : RCC  (Sarajevo)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT The WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies  (Vienna)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WESTERN BALKANS STATES Conference of WESTERN BALKANS STATES  (Rome)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)
WORLD TRADE LAW Advisory Centre on World Trade Organization Law : ACWL  (Geneva)



Other Current States within the 2018's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

PADANIA Provisional Government of the Federal Republic of PADANIA  (Milan + Venice + Vicenza)

Other Current Territories within the 2018's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

AVIANO AVIANO Air Base  (Aviano + Ghedi)
CAMP DARBY CAMP DARBY Military Complex  (Camp Darby)
HOLY HOUSE OF LORETO Papal Basilica of Major Sanctuary of THE HOLY HOUSE OF LORETO  (Holy House of Loreto)
HOLY SEE IN THE REST OF ITALY Properties of HOLY SEE IN THE REST OF ITALY  (Saint Francis of Assisi)
NATO IN ITALY Nato and American Bases in ITALY  (Naples + Verona + Vicenza)
NATO ITALY NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Italy  (Solbiate Olona)
NATO NAPLES Allied Joint Force Command NAPLES  (Naples)
SAINT ANTHONY OF PADUA Pontifical Basilica of SAINT ANTHONY OF PADUA  (Saint Anthony of Padua)
SAINT FRANCIS OF ASSISI Major Papal Basilica of SAINT FRANCIS OF ASSISI  (Saint Francis of Assisi)
SAINT ROSARY OF POMPEII Pontifical Basilica of the Major Sanctuary of the Holy Virgin of the SAINT ROSARY OF POMPEII  (Saint Rosary of Pompeii)
SIGONELLA American and Nato Base of SIGONELLA  (Sigonella)
TAVOLARA ISLAND Nato Station of TAVOLARA ISLAND  (The Point of the Canon)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)

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Notes:


   1900.ethnia.org is an essay which goal is to try to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organizations that have existed during the 20th century. The first version of the website dates back from 1996 and had been put online under ethnia.org in 1999. The current version is from 2009 and now allows to search for an entity for any day of the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [rose: country completed at level 2 (province, county, ...), red: level 3 (district, ...), white: level 1 only (region, federated State, ...)]

   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox




 Base sources:

   * World Statesmen, thanks to Ben Cahoon (US): historical polities and their rulers.
   * Statoids, thanks to Gwillim Law (US): historical administrative divisions.
   * Flags Of The World, thanks to Rob Raeside (CA): flags. (the link given is from my mirror of this site)
   * Heraldry of the World, maintained by Ralf Hartemink (NL): coat of arms.
   * Rulers.org, thanks to Benjamin Schemmel (DE): photos of rulers.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US): historical currencies.
   * World History at KMLA, maintained by Alexander Ganse (DE): historical maps.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US): for Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, maintained by Jacques Leclerc (CA): linguistical politics by country.
   * Population Statistics, maintained by Jan Lahmeyer (NL): historical evolution of the population.
   * Wikipedia, for general data, maps, pictures ...
   * Google Books, online library.
   * The other sources are given specifically according to the consulted entity, at bottom page.

   Some of the flags and coat of arms of the website are drawn by myself.

 Specific sources:






Any suggestion, correction, addition or collaboration is welcome and can be sent to .


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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2018-NOV-14.