ethnia.org   
 

1983-JAN-01

Zones: Timeline


BRITTANY (Rennes)  Region BRITTANY :
GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND (London a + Westminster lrUNO Member United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND : Queen Elizabeth II
EAST NEW BRITAIN (Rabaul)  EAST NEW BRITAIN Province :
WEST NEW BRITAIN (Kimbe)  WEST NEW BRITAIN Province :

Other Entities with similar names

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  UNITED KINGDOM 
  
(London a + Westminster lr) - (London a + Westminster lr) -

United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND (en) UNO Member
Emblem or Symbol*

Queen Elizabeth II
(ruler of UNITED KINGDOM since 1952-02-06)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: London a + Westminster lr
(London + Westminster)
a administrative, national or political capital (also ruler's residence)
l legislative or parliamentary capital, seat of government
r ruler's residence (royal or presidential, primary or secondary)
Official & national languages: English (en) .

Mainland:


GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND United Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND  (London)

3 Regionalized Divisions:

ENGLAND Country of ENGLAND  (London a + Westminster lr)Local: Country of ENGLAND (en)  (London + Westminster)
SCOTLAND Country of SCOTLAND  (Edinburgh)Local: Country of SCOTLAND (en)  (Edinburgh)
WALES Principality of WALES  (Cardiff)Local: Country of WALES (en) + Gwlad CYMRU (cy)  (Cardiff)




14 Territories:

AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA British Sovereign Bases Areas of AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA [British Forces in Cyprus]  (Episkopi Cantonment)Local: British Sovereign Bases Areas of AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA (en)  (Episkopi Cantonment)
ANGUILLA British Dependent Territory of ANGUILLA  (The Valley)Local: British Dependent Territory of ANGUILLA (en)  (The Valley)
BERMUDA ISLANDS British Dependent Territory of the BERMUDA ISLANDS  (Hamilton)Local: British Dependent Territory of THE BERMUDA ISLANDS (en)  (Hamilton)
BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY British Dependent Territory of BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY  ((Camp Justice on Diego Garcia))Local: British Dependent Territory of BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY (en)  ((Camp Justice on Diego Garcia))
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS British Dependent Territory of BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS  (Road Town)Local: British Dependent Territory of BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS (en)  (Road Town)
BRITISH ZONE IN GERMANY British Army of the Rhine and Royal Air Force Germany : BRITISH OCCUPATION ZONE IN GERMANY  (Rheindalen + Herford)Local: British Army of the Rhine and Royal Air Force Germany : BRITISH OCCUPATION ZONE IN GERMANY (en)  (Rheindalen + Herford)
CAYMAN ISLANDS British Dependent Territory of CAYMAN ISLANDS  (George Town)Local: British Dependent Territory of CAYMAN ISLANDS (en)  (George Town)
FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES British Dependent Territory of FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES  (Port Stanley)Local: British Dependent Territory of FALKLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Stanley)
GIBRALTAR Autonomous British Dependent Territory of GIBRALTAR  (Gibraltar)Local: British Dependent Territory of GIBRALTAR (en)  (Gibraltar)
HONG KONG British Dependent Territory of HONG KONG  (Victoria City)Local: British Dependent Territory of HONG KONG (en) + Jing Suk HOENG GONG : 英屬香港 (yue)r  (Victoria City)
MONTSERRAT British Dependent Territory of MONTSERRAT  (Plymouth)Local: British Dependent Territory of MONTSERRAT (en)  (Plymouth)
NORTHERN IRELAND Country of NORTHERN IRELAND [Directly administration]  (Belfast)Local: Country of NORTHERN IRELAND (en)  (Belfast)
SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES British Dependent Territory of SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Jamestown)Local: British Dependent Territory of SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Jamestown)
TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS British Dependent Territory of TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS  (Cockburn Town on Grand Turk)Local: British Dependent Territory of TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS (en)  (Cockburn Town on Grand Turk)

11 Condominiums:

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS Sector of ANTARTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS [Disputed]  (Fossil Bluff + Jubany Station + General Bernardo O´Higgins Riquelme Base)Local: Sector of ANTARTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS (en) + Sector del ANTÁRTICA Y LAS ISLAS DEL ATLÁNTICO SUR (es)  (Fossil Bluff + Base Jubany + Base General Bernardo O´Higgins Riquelme)
BRITISH ANTARCTICA British Antarctic Territory : BAT [High Commission administered from Falklands]  (Halley + (Signy) + (Rothera Station))Local: British Antarctc Territory : BAT (en)  (Halley + (Signy) + (Rothera Station))
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
DIEGO GARCIA DIEGO GARCIA Permanent Joint Operating Base  (Camp Justice on Diego Garcia a)Local: Diego Garcia Permanent Joint Operating Base : PJOB (en)  (Camp Justice on Diego Garcia)
FILCHNER-RONNE ICE-SHELF AND SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS Disputed British-Argentinian Zone of FILCHNER-RONNE ICE-SHELF AND SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS  (Orcadas + (Signy))Local: Zone of FILCHNER-RONNE ICE-SHELF AND SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS (en) + Zona del BANCO DE HIELO FILCHNER-RONNE Y ISLAS ORCADAS DEL SUR (es)  (Orcadas + (Signy))
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)Local: KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust (en)  (Runnymede)
NEUTRAL TERRITORY Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY  (Mill Tower)Local: Gibraltar NEUTRAL TERRITORY (en) + ZONA NEUTRAL de Gibraltar (es)  (Torre del Molino)
PITCAIRN AND DEPENDENCIES British Dependent Territory of PITCAIRN AND DEPENDENCIES  (Adamstown)Local: British Dependent Territory of PITCAIRN AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Adamstown)
UNITED NATIONS MEMORIAL CEMETERY Commission for the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea : CUNMCK  (Tanggok)Local: Commission for the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea : CUNMCK (en) + Jaehahn Yuen Ginyeomgongwon : JYG - 재한유엔기념공원 (ko) + Birleşmiş Milletler Anıt Mezarlığı Komisyonu : BMAMK (tr)  (Tanggok)
WEST BERLIN Allied Administration of WEST BERLIN [Autonomous Government of Berlin]  (Berlin-Schoeneberg)Local: BERLIN Selbstverwaltung (de) + BERLIN Autonomous Government (en) + Gouvernement autonome de BERLIN (fr)  (Berlin-Schöneberg)
WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND Chilean-British Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND  ((Port Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))Local: Sector in WESTERN ELLSWORTH LAND (en) + Sector en la TIERRA DE ELLSWORTH OCCIDENTAL (es)  ((Port Stanley) + (Puerto Williams))



4 Governments or Movements in Exile

BUGANDA-IN-EXILE Kingdom of BUGANDA-in-Exile  (London) King Mutebi II
ETHIOPIAN CROWN Crown of ETHIOPIA  (London) Crown Prince Asfa Wossen
KAJARS KAJAR Dynasty-in-Exile  (London) Prince Soltan Hamid Mirza Kajar
POLAND-IN-EXILE Government-in-Exile of the Republic of POLAND  (London x) President Count Edward Bernard Raczynski



Military entities abroad, special or locally shared:

AAFCE Allied Air Forces Central Europe : AAFCE  (Ramstein)Local: Allied Air Forces Central Europe : AAFCE (en) + Forces Aériennes Alliées de l´Europe Centrale : AAFCE (fr)  (Ramstein)
AFNORTH Allied Forces Northern Europe : AFNORTH  (Kolsaas)Local: Allied Forces Northern Europe : AFNORTH (en)  (Kolsås)
AKROTIRI American Facilities in AKROTIRI  (Akrotiri Airfield)Local: American Facilities in AKROTIRI (en)  (Akrotiri Airfield)
AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA British Sovereign Bases Areas of AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA [British Forces in Cyprus]  (Episkopi Cantonment)Local: British Sovereign Bases Areas of AKROTIRI AND DHEKELIA (en)  (Episkopi Cantonment)
AKROTIRI-EPISKOPI Western Sovereign Base Area : AKROTIRI  (Episkopi Cantonment)Local: Western Sovereign Base Area : WSBA (en)  (Episkopi Cantonment)
BALTAP Allied Forces Baltic Approaches : BALTAP  (Karup)Local: Allied Forces Baltic Approaches : BALTAP (en)  (Karup)
BARDUFOSS BARDUFOSS Air Station  (Bardufoss)Local: BARDUFOSS Flystasjon (nb) + BARDUFOSS Flystasjon (nn)  (Bardufoss)
BATUK British Army Training Unit Kenya : BATUK  (Kifaru Camp in Nairobi + Archer´s Post + Dol Dol)Local: British Army Training Unit Kenya : BATUK (en)  (Kifaru Camp + Archer´s Post + Dol Dol)
BATUS British Army Training Unit Suffield : BATUS  (Suffield)Local: British Army Training Unit Suffield : BATUS (en)  (Suffield)
BELIZE BASE Royal Air Force BELIZE  (Price Barracks in Ladyville)Local: Royal Air Force BELIZE (en)  (Price Barracks)
BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES American use of British Royal Air Force Bases : BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES  (Alconbury + Mildenhall + Croughton + Lakenheath)Local: American use of British Royal Air Force Bases : BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES (en)  (Alconbury + Mildenhall + Croughton + Lakenheath)
BRUNEI GARRISON British Military Garrison Brunei : British Armed Forces in BRUNEI  (Seria)Local: British Military Garrison Brunei : British Forces BRUNEI (en)  (Seria)
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay  (Captain James Cook Monument)Local: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK MONUMENT on Kealakekua Bay (en)  (Captain James Cook Monument)
CINCUKAIR United Kingdom Air Forces : CINCUKAIR  (High Wycombe)Local: United Kingdom Air Forces : CINCUKAIR (en)  (High Wycombe)
DHEKELIA Eastern Sovereign Base Area : DHEKELIA  (Dhekelia Cantonment)Local: Eastern Sovereign Base Area : ESBA (en)  (Dhekelia Cantonment)
DIEGO GARCIA DIEGO GARCIA Permanent Joint Operating Base  (Camp Justice on Diego Garcia a)Local: Diego Garcia Permanent Joint Operating Base : PJOB (en)  (Camp Justice on Diego Garcia)
GOOSE BAY Canadian Forces Base GOOSE BAY  (Goose Bay)Local: Canadian Forces Base GOOSE BAY (en) + Base des Forces Canadiennes GOOSE BAY (fr)  (Goose Bay)
KENNEDY MEMORIAL John Fitzerald Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede : KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust  (Runnymede)Local: KENNEDY MEMORIAL Trust (en)  (Runnymede)
SEMBAWANG BASE SEMBAWANG Air Base  (Sembawang Base)Local: SEMBAWANG Air Base (en) + SANBAWANG Kōngjūn Jīdì : 三巴旺空军基地 (zh) + Pangkalan Udara SEMBAWANG (ms) + CEMPAVĀṅ Vāṉpaṭait Taḷam : செம்பவாங் வான்படைத் தளம் (ta)  (Sembawang Base)
UNITED NATIONS MEMORIAL CEMETERY Commission for the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea : CUNMCK  (Tanggok)Local: Commission for the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea : CUNMCK (en) + Jaehahn Yuen Ginyeomgongwon : JYG - 재한유엔기념공원 (ko) + Birleşmiş Milletler Anıt Mezarlığı Komisyonu : BMAMK (tr)  (Tanggok)
WIDEAWAKE BASE Royal Air Force Ascencion Island and United States Air Force WIDEAWAKE Airfield  (Wideawake)Local: Royal Air Force Ascencion Island and United States Air Force WIDEAWAKE Airfield (en)  (Wideawake)


94 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


ABCA ARMIES American British Canadian and Australian Armies´ Program : ABCA ARMIES  (Washington-District of Columbia + London)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
AIR STANDARDIZATION Air Standardization Coordination Committee : ASCC  (Washington-District of Columbia + London + Ottawa + Canberra + Wellington)
ANGLO-PORTUGUESE ALLIANCE ANGLO-PORTUGUESE Alliance  (Torres Vedras)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  ((Washington-District of Columbia))
ASIAN BANK Asian Development Bank : ADB  (Mandaluyong City)
ATLANTIC TUNA International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas : ICCAT  (Madrid)
CARIBBEAN BANK Caribbean Development Bank : CDB  (Bridgetown)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research : CERN  (Meyrin)
COCOM Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls : COCOM  (Paris)
COLOMBO PLAN Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific : CESDAP  (Colombo)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
COMMONWEALTH THE COMMONWEATH Secretariat  (Westminster)
CUSTOMS Customs Cooperation Council : CCC  (Brussels)
DEVELOPMENT LAW International Development Law Organization : IDLO  (Rome)
EAST-WEST Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe : CSCE  (Madrid)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance : TREATY OF DUNKIRK  (Dunkirk)
ESA European Space Agency : ESA  (Paris)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation : EUROCONTROL  (Brussels-Haren)
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation : EUROCONTROL  (Brussels-Haren)
EUROPA European Community : EC  (Brussels o + Luxembourg City j + Strasbourg l)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN PATENT European Patent Organisation : EPORG  (Munich)
EUROPEAN SCIENCE European Science Foundation : ESF  (Strasbourg)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FIVE EYES Combined Communications Electronics Board : CCEB  (Fort Meade + Cheltenham)
FIVE POWERS Five Power Defence Arrangements : FFDA  (Station Butterworth)
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade : GATT  (Villa Bocage)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GROUP OF SEVEN GROUP OF SEVEN Industrialized Nations  (Versailles)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
INMARSAT International Mobile Satellite Organization : INMARSAT  (London)
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : INTELSAT  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-AMERICAN BANK Inter-American Development Bank : IADB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Saint Cloud)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization : NATO Alliance  (Brussels)
NATO ASSEMBLY North Atlantic Assembly : NAA  (Brussels)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
OSLO CONVENTION Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft : OSLO CONVENTION  (Oslo + Paris)
PACIFIC SALMON International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission : IPSFC  (Vancouver)
PAHO Pan-American Health Organization : PAHO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PANEUROPA International Paneuropean Union : IPU  (Vienna)
PEACE World Peace Council : WPC  (Helsinki)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
ROMS International Romani Union : IRU  (Prague)
SOUTH PACIFIC South Pacific Commission : SPC  (Noumea)
SOUTH PACIFIC REGION South Pacific Regional Environment Programme : SPREP  (Apia)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TECHNICAL COOPERATION The Technical Cooperation Program : TTCP  (Washington-District of Columbia)
UKUSA United Kingdom-United States of America Communications Intelligence Agreement : UKUSA and Collaborating Commonwealth Countries  (Fort Meade + Cheltenham)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDDA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs : UNDDA  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children´s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDIR United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research : UNIDIR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women : UNIFEM  (New York City)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION Western European Union Assembly : WEU  (Brussels + Paris)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Pregny-Chambesy)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD BUSINESS International Chamber of Commerce : ICC [The Word Business Organization]  (Paris)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.


Other Territories or Entities within the 2022's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES American use of British Royal Air Force Bases : BRITISH-AMERICAN BASES  (Alconbury + Mildenhall + Croughton + Lakenheath)
CINCUKAIR United Kingdom Air Forces : CINCUKAIR  (High Wycombe)
CUCKFIELD Independent State of CUCKFIELD  (Cuckfield)
SEALAND Principality of SEALAND  (Fort Roughs)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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