French Republic : FRENCH Community

French Republic : FRENCH Community

Flag or logo since 1944-08-25
République française : Communauté FRANÇAISE (fr) UNO Member
Emblem or Symbol

President Rene Coty
(ruler of FRANCE since 1954-01-16)
Capital:Paris - (Paris)
Official languages: French (fr) .


FRANCE French Republic : FRENCH Community  (Paris)

16 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

CENTRAL-AFRICAN Autonomous Central African Republic : CAR  (Bangui) Barthelemy Boganda
CHAD Autonomous Republic of CHAD  (Fort Lamy) Gabriel Lisette
CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE Autonomous Republic of CONGO  (Brazzaville) President Rene Coty
DAHOMEY Autonomous Republic of DAHOMEY  (Porto Novo) Sourou-Migan Apithy
FRANCE METROPOLITAN French Republic : FR  (Paris) President Rene Coty
FRENCH SUDAN Autonomous SUDANESE Republic  (Bamako) Jean-Marie Kone
FRENCH WEST AFRICA States of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Abidjan) President Rene Coty
GABON Provisional Government of the Autonomous GABONESE Republic  (Libreville) Leon Mba
IVORY COAST Autonomous Republic of IVORY COAST  (Abidjan) Auguste Denise
MADAGASCAR Autonomous MALAGASY Republic  (Tananarive) President Rene Coty
MALI Federation of MALI  (Dakar + Bamako) Modibo Keita
MAURITANIA Autonomous Islamic Republic of MAURITANIA  (Nouakchott) Moktar Ould Daddah
NIGER Autonomous Republic of NIGER  (Niamey) Hamani Diori
SENEGAL Autonomous Republic of SENEGAL  (Dakar) Mamadou Dia
UPPER VOLTA Autonomous Voltaic Republic : UPPER VOLTA  (Wagadugu) Maurice Yameogo

5 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Ramon Iglesias Navarri
CAMEROON United Nations Trust Territory of the State of Cameroon : Autonomous Republic of CAMEROON  (Yaounde) President Rene Coty
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa) Amenokal Bayy ag Akhamuk
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protectorate]  (Monaco) Prince Rainier III
TOGO Republic of TOGO  (Lome) President Rene Coty

11 Territories:

ALGERIA General Delegation of FRENCH ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Délégation générale de l''ALGÉRIE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Alger)
BIZERTE-FERRYVILLE French Naval Base of BIZERTE-FERRYVILLE Zone  (Bizerte-Ferryville)Local: Base navale de la Zone de BIZERTE-FERRYVILLE (fr)  (Bizerte-Ferryville)
COMORO ARCHIPELAGO French Overseas Territory of THE COMORO ARCHIPELAGO  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer français de l''ARCHIPEL DES COMORES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
FRENCH SAHARA Departments of FRENCH SAHARA  (Colomb-Bechar + Wargla)Local: Départements du SAHARA FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Colomb-Béchar + Ouargla)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Overseas Territory : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS Overseas Territory of FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS  (Port Aux Francais + Dumont D''Urville Station + (Paris) + (Saint Denis of the Reunion))Local: Territoire d''outre-mer des TERRES AUSTRALES ET ANTARCTIQUES FRANÇAISES (fr)  (Port-aux-Français + Base Antarctique Dumont d''Urville + (Paris) + (Saint-Denis de La Réunion))
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d''Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d''Abou Gosh)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
SAINT HELENA DOMAINS French National Domains on SAINT HELENA  (Longwood House)Local: Domaines nationaux de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Overseas Territory of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Territoire d''outre-mer français de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

11 Condominiums:

AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE-FREIBURG International Airport of Basel Mulhouse Freiburg : AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE  (Airport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg)Local: Aéroport international de BÂLE-MULHOUSE-FRIBOURG (fr) + Flughafen BASEL-MÜLHAUSEN-FREIBURG (de) + Airport BASEL-MULHOUSE-FREIBURG (en)  (Aéroport de Bâle-Mulhouse-Fribourg)
CANFRANC RAILWAY STATION Franco-Spanish International Convention on Trans-Pyrenean Railways : CANFRANC INTERNATIONAL RAILWAY STATION  (Canfranc International Railway Station)Local: Convención Franco-Española sobre Ferrocarriles Transpirenaicos : ESTACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE CANFRANC (es) + Convention franco-espagnole relative aux Chemins de Fer Transpyrénéens : GARE INTERNATIONALE DE CANFRANC (fr)  (Estación Internacional de Canfranc)
FRENCH INDIA India Occupied Territories of FRENCH INDIA High Commission  (Pondicherry)Local: Territoires de l''INDE FRANÇAISE (fr) + PHRENCH BHARAT ke Pradeshon : फ्रेंच भारत के प्रदेशों (hi) + FRENCH INDIA High Commission (en)  (Pondichéry)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PALACE FARNESE French Embassy in Italy : PALACE FARNESE  (Palace Farnese)Local: Ambassade de France en Italie : PALAIS FARNÈSE (fr) + Ambasciata di Francia in Italia : PALAZZO FARNESE (it)  (Palazzo Farnese)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
UNITED NATIONS MEMORIAL CEMETERY United Nations Memorial Cemetery : UNMC  (Tanggok)Local: United Nations Memorial Cemetery : UNMC (en) + Cimetière Commémoratif des Nations-Unies : CCNU (fr)  (Tanggok)
WEST BERLIN Allied Administration of WEST BERLIN : Autonomous Government of Berlin  (Berlin-Schoeneberg)Local: BERLIN Selbstverwaltung (de) + BERLIN Autonomous Government (en) + Gouvernement autonome de BERLIN (fr)  (Berlin-Schöneberg)

Dependent Protectorates:

RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahayta))
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)

7 Governments in Exile

AZERBAIJAN IN EXILE Association of AZERBAIJANI Emigrants  (Paris) Akbar Agha Sheykhulislamov
CATALONIA IN EXILE Catalan Government in Exile : Generality of CATALONIA  (Perpignan) President Josep Tarradellas
EUZKADI BASQUE Government in Exile  (Paris) President Jose Antonio de Aguirre y Lecube
GEORGIA IN EXILE Association for the Georgian Home : GEORGIAN National Organization  (Leuville on Orge) Interregnum
NGUYEN NGUYEN Dynasty in Exile  (Cannes) Emperor Bao Dai
SPAIN IN EXILE SPANISH Republican Government in Exile  (Paris) President Diego Martinez Barrio

Military entities abroad or locally shared:

AAFCE Allied Air Forces CENTRAL EUROPE  (Ramstein)Local: Allied Air Forces CENTRAL EUROPE (en) + Forces Aériennes Alliées de l''EUROPE CENTRALE (fr)  (Ramstein)
AFCENT Alled Forces Central Europe : AFCENT  (Fontainebleau)Local: Alled Forces Central Europe : AFCENT (en) + Forces Alliées en Europe Centrale : AFCENT (fr)  (Fontainebleau)
BADEN-SOELLINGEN Royal Canadian Air Forces BADEN-SOELLINGEN  (Baden-Soellingen)Local: Royal Canadian Air Forces BADEN-SOELLINGEN (en) + Forces aériennes royales canadiennes de BADEN-SOELLINGEN (fr)  (Baden-Soellingen)
BIZERTE-FERRYVILLE French Naval Base of BIZERTE-FERRYVILLE Zone  (Bizerte-Ferryville)Local: Base navale de la Zone de BIZERTE-FERRYVILLE (fr)  (Bizerte-Ferryville)
CASABLANCA BASE French Air Base of CASABLANCA  (Casablanca Air Base)Local: Base aérienne française de CASABLANCA  (Base Aérienne de Casablanca)
CENTAG Nato Central Army Group : CENTAG  (Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg)Local: Nato Central Army Group : CENTAG (en)  (Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg)
DAKAR OUAKAM French Base of DAKAR OUAKAM  (Dakar Ouakam)Local: Base française de DAKAR-OUAKAM (fr)  (Dakar Ouakam)
DIEGO-SUAREZ BASE French Base of DIEGO SUAREZ  (Diego-Suarez Base)Local: Base française de DIÉGO-SUAREZ (fr)  (Base de Diégo-Suarez)
FES CAPTAIN PETIT-JEAN French Base of FES CAPTAIN PETIT-JEAN  (Fes Captain Petit-Jean)Local: Base française de FÈS CAPITAINE PETIT-JEAN  (Fès Capitaine Petit-Jean)
FRENCH BASES IN GERMANY French Forces in GERMANY  (Baden-Baden)Local: Forces françaises en ALLEMAGNE (fr) + Französische Streitkräfte in DEUTSCHLAND (de)  (Baden-Baden)
IVATO IVATO Air Base  (Ivato)Local: Base aérienne d''IVATO (fr)  (Ivato)
KATI French Military Base of KATI  (Kati)Local: Base militaire française de KATI (fr)  (Kati)
LIBREVILLE BASE LIBREVILLE Air Base  (Libreville Air Base)Local: Base aérienne de LIBREVILLE (fr)  (Base Aérienne de Libreville)
MARRAKESH BASE French Base of MARRAKESH  (Marrakesh Base)Local: Base française de MARRAKECH (fr)  (Base de Marrakech)
MEDIOUNA MEDIOUNA Air Base  (Mediouna)Local: Base aérienne de MÉDIOUNA  (Médiouna)
MEKNES COMMANDANT MEZERGUES French Base of MEKNES COMMANDANT MEZERGUES  (Meknes Commandant Mezergues)Local: Base française de MEKNÈS COMMANDANT MÉZERGUES  (Meknès Commandant Mézergues)
RABAT-SALE-COMMANDANT-GUEDJ French Air Base of RABAT-SALE COMMANDANT GUEDJ  (Rabat-Sale)Local: Base aérienne française de RABAT-SALÉ COMMANDANT GUEDJ (fr)  (Rabat-Salé)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)Local: Cimetière militaire belge de SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (fr) + Belgische militaire begraafplaats van SAINT-JEAN-CAP-FERRAT (nl)  (Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat)
SHAPE Allied Command Europe : Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe : SHAPE  (Rocquencourt)Local: Allied Command Europe : Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe : SHAPE (en) + Commandement Allié de l''Europe : Grand Quartier Général des Puissances Alliées en Europe : SHAPE (fr)  (Rocquencourt)
UNITED NATIONS MEMORIAL CEMETERY United Nations Memorial Cemetery : UNMC  (Tanggok)Local: United Nations Memorial Cemetery : UNMC (en) + Cimetière Commémoratif des Nations-Unies : CCNU (fr)  (Tanggok)

63 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
BIG FOUR BIG FOUR Powers  (West Berlin)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research : CERN  (Meyrin)
CIVIL STATUS International Commission of Civil Status : ICCS  (Strasbourg)
COCOM Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls : COCOM  (Paris)
CUSTOMS Customs Cooperation Council : CCC  (Brussels)
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community : ECSC  (Brussels + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance : TREATY OF DUNKIRK  (Dunkirk)
EURATOM European Atomic Community : EAC  (Brussels)
EUROPA European Economic Community : EEC  (Brussels + Luxembourg + Strasbourg)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN MIGRATION Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration : ICEM  (Geneva)
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY Declaration for the Creation of the European Southern Observatory : ESO  (Groningen)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FRANCO-SOVIET ALLIANCE Treaty of Friendship between France and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : FRANCO-SOVIET Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade : GATT  (Villa Bocage)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Bureau : IHB  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMCO Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization : IMCO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Geneva)
INTERNATIONAL PROPERTY International Bureaux for the Protection of International Property : IBPIP  (Berne)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Saint Cloud)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Brussels)
LATIN UNION Madrid Convention for LATIN UNION  (Madrid)
LEAGUE OF RED CROSS League of Red Cross Societies : LORCS  (Geneva)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization : NATO Alliance  (Paris)
NATO PARLIAMENT North Atlantic Treaty Organization Parliamentarians'' Conference : NATO-PC  (London)
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization : NAFO  (Dartmouth)
OEEC Organization for European Economic Cooperation : OEEC  (Paris)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PAHO Pan-American Health Organization : PAHO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
PANEUROPA International Paneuropean Union : IPU  (Vienna)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Strasbourg)
SOUTH PACIFIC South Pacific Commission : SPC  (Noumea)
SOUTH-EAST ASIA Southeast Asia Treaty Organization : SEATO  (Bangkok)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TRAVEL International Union of Official Travel Organizations : IUOTO  (Geneva)
TROPICAL TUNA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : IATTC  (San Diego-La Jolla)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION Western European Union Assembly : WEU  (Brussels + Paris)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Pregny-Chambesy)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD BUSINESS International Chamber of Commerce : ICC [The Word Business Organization]  (Paris)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FRANCE METROPOLITAN French Republic : FR  (Paris)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

AFCENT Alled Forces Central Europe : AFCENT  (Fontainebleau)
AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE-FREIBURG International Airport of Basel Mulhouse Freiburg : AIRPORT BASEL-MULHOUSE  (Airport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg)
ALSACE Program Region of ALSACE  (Strasbourg)
BASSAS DA INDIA French Dependency of BASSAS DA INDIA  (Bassas da India)
CORSICA Department of CORSICA  (Ajaccio)
DESIRADE DESIRADE Commune  (Beausejour)
EUROPA ISLAND French Dependency of EUROPA ISLAND  (Europa Station)
FRENCH GUIANA French Overseas Department of GUIANA  (Cayenne)
GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE Territories of the GERMAN CEMETERIES IN FRANCE  (Neuville-Saint-Vaast + Andilly)
GLORIOSO ISLANDS French Dependency of GLORIOSO ISLANDS  (Glorioso Station)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
GUADELOUPE French Overseas Department of GUADELOUPE  (Basse-Terre)
ISLES OF THE SAINTS Communes of THE ISLES OF THE SAINTS  (Terre de Haut + Terre de Bas)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Colony of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Juan de Nova)
MARIE-GALANTE Communes of MARIE-GALANTE  (Grand-Bourg)
MARTINIQUE French Overseas Department of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)
REUNION French Overseas Department of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)
SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT Belgian Military Cemetery of SAINT JEAN CAPE FERRAT  (Saint Jean Cape Ferrat)
SARRAZINE TOWER Luxemburgian Residency of SARRAZINE TOWER  (Sarrazine Tower)
SAUGEAIS Free Republic of SAUGEAIS  (Montbenoit)
SHAPE Allied Command Europe : Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe : SHAPE  (Rocquencourt)
TROMELIN ISLAND French Station of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Station Serge Frolow)
- -
Notes: aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   *, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.


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