ethnia.org
 

1909-JAN-09

Zones:

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol

President Armand Fallieres
(ruler of FRANCE since 1906-02-18)
Capital:Paris - (Paris)
Official languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

BELFORT Arrondissement of the Territory of BELFORT  (Belfort)Local: Territoire de BELFORT (fr)  (Belfort)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)



11 Assisted Entities

AGADEZ Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air : Sultanate of AGADEZ Vassal of France  (Agades) Amenokal Abd Ar-Rahman Taghama bin Muhammad Al-Baqiri
ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Baptista Benlloch i Vivo
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Alo
CRETE CRETAN State [International Council of the Independent Cretan State]  (Chania) Alexandros Zaimis
DAR-KUTI Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele) Sultan Muhammad al-Senussi
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne) Sultan Unda Loitah Anfare
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa) Amenokal Musa ag Amastan
KONG WATTARA Empire of Kong  (Kong) Emperor Pinntie Ba
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protected State]  (Monaco) Prince Albert I
TIBESTI Kingdom of the Teda Confederation of TIBESTI [French Zone of Influence]  (Zouar) Derdo Guetty I
TUNISIA Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Autonomous Tunisian Regency under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tunis) Muhammad V An-Nasir Bey



25 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Claimed ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: TERRE ADÉLIE antarctique française (fr)  ((Paris))
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH CONGO FRENCH CONGO Colony  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du CONGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Libreville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU (fr)  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH MOROCCO Military Governorate of FRENCH MOROCCO  (Casablanca)Local: Gouvernorat militaire du MAROC FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Casablanca)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
GABOON GABOON Colony  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du GABON (fr)  (Libreville)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d''Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d''Abou Gosh)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Local: Dépendance française de l''ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
UBANGI-SHARI-CHAD UBANGI-SHARI-CHAD Colony : French Sudan  (Bangui)Local: Colonie de l''OUBANGUI-CHARI-TCHAD (fr)  (Bangui)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

18 Condominiums:

AGWE French-German Colonial Authority on the Ewe State of AGWE  (Agwe)Local: État d''AGOUÉ (fr) + Staat AGOUÉ (de) + AGWE (ewe)  (Agoué)
CHANTABOR French Zone of Influence in CHANTABOR Circle  (Chantabor)Local: Monthon CHANTHA BURI : มณฑลจันทบุรี (th)  (Muang Chantha Buri)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T''A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH AMOY French Settlement of AMOY  (Amoy)Local: Établissement français d''AMOY (fr)  (Amoy)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE French Zone of Influence in GOLDEN TRIANGLE  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
KHORAT PLATEAU French Zone of Influence of KORAT PLATEAU  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGYU Mezhdunarodnoye Uregulirovaniye : КУЛАНГЮ международное урегулирование (ru) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PAKHOI Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)Local: Ausländische Siedlungen von PAKHOI (de) + Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI (en) + Établissements étrangers de PAK-HOI (fr) + Insediamenti Stranieri di PAKHOI (it) + Assentamentos Estrangeiros de PAKHOI (pt) + PEI-HAI-te Tìng-Chü Tien : 北海的定居點 (zh)  (Pak-Hoi)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID''IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)
SOUTHERN CHINA French Sphere of Influence in SOUTHERN CHINA  (Yunnan-Fu)Local: CHUNG-HUA NAN-FANG Ti-Ch''ü : 中國南方地區 (zh) + Zone de CHINE DU SUD (fr)  (Yun-Nan-Fu)

Dependent Protectorates:

ADRAR French Protectorate of ADRAR Emirate  (Atar)Local: Emirat ADARAR : إميرات آدرار (ar) + Émirat de l''ADRAR (fr)  (Atar)
ANJOUAN Sultanate of ANJOUAN [French Protectorate]  (Mutsamudu)Local: Sultanat d''ANJOUAN (fr) + Sultani cha NDZUWANI (wni) + Sultanat N''ZUANI : سلطنة نزواني (ar)  (Moutsamoudou)
ANNAM Empire of ANNAM [French Protectorate]  (Hue)Local: Empire d''ANNAM (fr) + Đế Quốc AN NAM - Trung Kỳ : 中圻 (vi)  (Huê)
BAGHIRMI Sultanate of BAGHIRMI [French Protectorate of the Baghirmi Kingdom]  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
BANGASSO French Protectorate of the Nzakara Sultanate of BANGASSO  (Bangasso)Local: Sultanat de BANGASSO (fr) + Sultanat BANGASSOU (nzk)  (Bangasso)
BORKU AND ENNEDI Land and Protectorate of BORKU AND ENNEDI  (Faya)Local: Pays et Protectorat du BORKOU ET ENNEDI (fr)  (Faya)
CAMBODIA Kingdom of CAMBODIA [French Protectorate]  (Phnom Penh)Local: Royaume du CAMBODGE (fr) + Preah Reach Ana Pak KAMPUCHEA : ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា (km)  (Phnom Penh)
CHAMPASACK Principality of CHAMPASACK [French Protectorate]  (Pakse)Local: Principauté de CHAMPASSAC (fr) + Negara CHAMPASAKTI : อาณาจักรล้านช้างจำปาศักดิ์ (lo)  (Paksé)
DASA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASA  (Dasa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba ÌDÀÁSHÀ (idd)  (Dassa)
FUTA JALLON French Protectorate of FUTA JALLON Almamate  (Timbo)Local: Protectorat français du FOUTA-DJALON (fr) + Almaami FUUTA JALOO : فوتاجلون (ff)  (Timbo)
GURMA STATES French Protectorate of GURMA STATES  (Nungu)Local: Protectorat français des ÉTATS GOURMANTCHÉS (fr) + Gulimance : GURMA (gux)  (Noungou)
INDOCHINA French Government-General of the Union of INDOCHINA  (Hanoi)Local: Union de l''INDO-CHINE française (fr)  (Hanoï)
KERGUELEN ARCHIPELAGO French Residency of KERGUELEN ARCHIPELAGO  (Port Couvreux)Local: Résidence française de l''ARCHIPEL DES KERGUELEN (fr)  (Port Couvreux)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
LAOS French Protectorate of LAOS  (Vientiane)Local: Protectorat français du LAOS (fr) + LAO : ລາວ (lo)  (Viengchan)
LUANG PHRABANG French Protectorate of the Kingdom of LUANG PHRABANG  (Luangphrabang)Local: Royaume de LUANG PHRABANG (fr) + Anachak LUANG PHRABANG : ອານາຈັກຫລວງພະບາງ (lo)  (Luangphrabang)
NUNGU French Protectorate of the Gurma State of NUNGU  (Nungu)Local: État gourma de NOUNGOU (fr) + NUNGU Nunbado (gux)  (Noungou)
RAFAI Protectorate on the Zande Sultanate of RAFAI  (Rafai)Local: Sultanat de RAFAÏ (fr) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (ar) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (zne)  (Rafaï)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Territory of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES [French Protectorate]  (Fort Laperrine)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Fort Laperrine)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
TAGANIT French Protectorate of the Emirate of TAGANIT  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TONQUIN French Protectorate of TONQUIN  (Hanoi)Local: Protectorat du TONKIN (fr) + Bảo hộ BắC Kỳ - Bắc Bộ : 北圻 (vi)  (Hanoï)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)
UPPER VOLTA French Protectorate of UPPER VOLTA  (Waghadugu)Local: Protectorat français de la HAUTE-VOLTA (fr)  (Woghodogo)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Protectorate of THE WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Protectorat français des ÎLES WALLIS ET FOUTOUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Ouvéa)
YATENGA French Protectorate of the Mosi State of YATENGA  (Wahiguya)Local: Protectorat français de l''État mossi du YATENGA (fr) + YATENGA Naaba (mos)  (Ouahigouya)
ZEMIO Protectorate on the Azande Sultanate of ZEMIO  (Zemio)Local: Sultanat de ZÉMIO (fr) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (ar) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (zne)  (Zémio)



2 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) Queen Laure-Therese I
CUNANI Free State of CUNANI  (Cayenne) President Adolph Brezet



Military entity abroad or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)


29 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
ELECTROTECHNICAL International Electrotechnical Commission : IEC  (London)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GREAT POWERS General Act of the Conference of ALGECIRAS  (Algeciras)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
NAVAL CONFERENCE International NAVAL Conference of London  (London)
NAVIGATION International Congress of Navigation : ICN  (Saint Petersburg)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : FRANCO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Congress of REFRIGERATION  (Paris)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS Franco-Spanish International Convention on TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS  (Canfranc)
TRIPLE ENTENTE TRIPLE ENTENTE Agreement  (London)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ALSATIA-LORRAINE Imperial Territory of ALSATIA-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)
CLIPPERTON ISLAND British Pacific Islands Company lease on the Mexican Colony of CLIPPERTON ISLAND  (Clipperton)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
- ethnia.org -
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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