w.ethnia.org
 

1907-MAR-22

- Zones:

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol

President Armand Fallieres
(ruler of FRANCE since 1906-02-18)
Capital:Paris - (Paris)
Official languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

BELFORT Arrondissement of the Territory of BELFORT  (Belfort)Local: Territoire de BELFORT (fr)  (Belfort)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)



11 Assisted Entities

AGADEZ Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air : Sultanate of AGADEZ Vassal of France  (Agades) Amenokal Uthman Mikitan bin Abd Al-Qadir
ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) President Armand Fallieres
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Alo
CRETE International Council of the Provisional Government of the CRETAN State  (Chania) Alexandros Zaimis
DAR-KUTI Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele) Sultan Muhammad al-Senussi
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne) Sultan Unda Loitah Anfare
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa) Amenokal Musa ag Amastan
KONG Wattara Empire of KONG  (Kong) Emperor Pinntie Ba
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protected State]  (Monaco) Prince Albert I
TIBESTI Kingdom of the Teda Confederation of TIBESTI [French Zone of Influence]  (Zouar) Derdo Guetty I
TUNISIA Autonomous Regency of TUNIS : French Protectorate of the Tunisian Regency  (Tunis) Muhammad V An-Nasir Bey



25 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Claimed ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: TERRE ADÉLIE antarctique française (fr)  ((Paris))
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH CONGO FRENCH CONGO Colony  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du CONGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Libreville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU (fr)  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
GABOON GABOON Colony  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du GABON (fr)  (Libreville)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d''Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d''Abou Gosh)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Local: Dépendance française de l''ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Colonie française de MAYOTTE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
UBANGI-SHARI-CHAD UBANGI-SHARI-CHAD Colony : French Sudan  (Bangui)Local: Colonie de l''OUBANGUI-CHARI-TCHAD (fr)  (Bangui)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

18 Condominiums:

AGWE French-German Colonial Authority on the Ewe State of AGWE  (Agwe)Local: État d''AGOUÉ (fr) + Staat AGOUÉ (de) + AGWE (ewe)  (Agoué)
CHANTABOR French Sphere of Influence in CHANTABOR Circle  (Chantabor)Local: Monthon CHANTHA BURI : มณฑลจันทบุรี (th)  (Muang Chantha Buri)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T''A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH AMOY French Settlement of AMOY  (Amoy)Local: Établissement français d''AMOY (fr)  (Amoy)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE French Sphere of Influence in GOLDEN TRIANGLE  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
KHORAT PLATEAU French Sphere of Influence of KORAT PLATEAU  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGYU Mezhdunarodnoye Uregulirovaniye : КУЛАНГЮ международное урегулирование (ru) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Condominium of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Condominium anglo-français des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PAKHOI Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)Local: Ausländische Siedlungen von PAKHOI (de) + Foreign Settlements of PAKHOI (en) + Établissements étrangers de PAK-HOI (fr) + Insediamenti Stranieri di PAKHOI (it) + Assentamentos Estrangeiros de PAKHOI (pt) + PEI-HAI-te Tìng-Chü Tien : 北海的定居點 (zh)  (Pak-Hoi)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID''IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)
SOUTHERN CHINA French Sphere of Influence in SOUTHERN CHINA  (Yunnan-Fu)Local: CHUNG-HUA NAN-FANG Ti-Ch''ü : 中國南方地區 (zh) + Zone de CHINE DU SUD (fr)  (Yun-Nan-Fu)

Dependent Protectorates:

AJACHE IPO French Protectorate of the Fon Kingdom of AJACHE IPO  (Porto Novo)Local: Protectorat français du Royaume d''ADJATCHÉ IPO (fr) + Abosu AJACHE IPO (fon) + Abosu AJASE IPO (yor)  (Porto-Novo)
ANJOUAN Sultanate of ANJOUAN [French Protectorate]  (Mutsamudu)Local: Sultanat d''ANJOUAN (fr) + Sultani cha NDZUWANI (wni) + Sultanat N''ZUANI : سلطنة نزواني (ar)  (Moutsamoudou)
ANNAM French Protectorate of the Empire of ANNAM  (Hue)Local: Empire d''ANNAM (fr) + Đế Quốc AN NAM - Trung Kỳ : 中圻 (vi)  (Huê)
BAGHIRMI Sultanate of BAGHIRMI [French Protectorate of the Baghirmi Kingdom]  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
BANGASSO French Protectorate of the Nzakara Sultanate of BANGASSO  (Bangasso)Local: Sultanat de BANGASSO (fr) + Sultanat BANGASSOU (nzk)  (Bangasso)
BORKU AND ENNEDI Land and Protectorate of BORKU AND ENNEDI  (Faya)Local: Pays et Protectorat du BORKOU ET ENNEDI (fr)  (Faya)
CAMBODIA Kingdom of CAMBODIA [French Protectorate]  (Phnom Penh)Local: Royaume du CAMBODGE (fr) + Preah Reach Ana Pak KAMPUCHEA : ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា (km)  (Phnom Penh)
CHAMPASACK Principality of CHAMPASACK [French Protectorate]  (Bassac)Local: Principauté de CHAMPASSAC (fr) + Negara CHAMPASAKTI : อาณาจักรล้านช้างจำปาศักดิ์ (lo)  (Bassac)
COMOROS French Protectorate of THE COMOROS  (Mutsamudu)Local: Protectorat français des COMORES (fr)  (Moutsamoudou)
DASA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASA  (Dasa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba ÌDÀÁSHÀ (idd)  (Dassa)
FUTA JALLON French Protectorate of FUTA JALLON Almamate  (Timbo)Local: Protectorat français du FOUTA-DJALON (fr) + Almaami FUUTA JALOO : فوتاجلون (ff)  (Timbo)
GURMA STATES French Protectorate of GURMA STATES  (Nungu)Local: Protectorat français des ÉTATS GOURMANTCHÉS (fr) + Gulimance : GURMA (gux)  (Noungou)
INDOCHINA French Government-General of the Union of INDOCHINA  (Hanoi)Local: Union de l''INDO-CHINE française (fr)  (Hanoï)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
LAOS French Protectorate of LAOS  (Vientiane)Local: Protectorat français du LAOS (fr) + LAO : ລາວ (lo)  (Viengchan)
LUANG PHRABANG French Protectorate of the Kingdom of LUANG PHRABANG  (Luangphrabang)Local: Royaume de LUANG PHRABANG (fr) + Anachak LUANG PHRABANG : ອານາຈັກຫລວງພະບາງ (lo)  (Luangphrabang)
MAYOTTE MAYOTTE Protectorate  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Protectorat de MAYOTTE (fr) + Jezirah MAYUT : جزيرة مايوت (ar) + Kisiwa cha MAORÉ (swb)  (Dzaoudzi)
NUNGU French Protectorate of the Gurma State of NUNGU  (Nungu)Local: État gourma de NOUNGOU (fr) + NUNGU Nunbado (gux)  (Noungou)
RAFAI Protectorate on the Zande Sultanate of RAFAI  (Rafai)Local: Sultanat de RAFAÏ (fr) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (ar) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (zne)  (Rafaï)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Protectorate of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES  (Fort Laperrine)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Fort Laperrine)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
TAGANIT French Protectorate of the Emirate of TAGANIT  (Tijikja)Local: Emirat TAGANT : إمرات تكانت (ar) + Confédération du TAGANIT (fr)  (Tidjikdja)
TONQUIN French Protectorate of TONQUIN  (Hanoi)Local: Protectorat du TONKIN (fr) + Bảo hộ BắC Kỳ - Bắc Bộ : 北圻 (vi)  (Hanoï)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)
UPPER VOLTA French Protectorate of UPPER VOLTA  (Waghadugu)Local: Protectorat français de la HAUTE-VOLTA (fr)  (Woghodogo)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Protectorate of THE WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Protectorat français des ÎLES WALLIS ET FOUTOUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Ouvéa)
YATENGA French Protectorate of the Mosi State of YATENGA  (Wahiguya)Local: Protectorat français de l''État mossi du YATENGA (fr) + YATENGA Naaba (mos)  (Ouahigouya)
ZEMIO Protectorate on the Azande Sultanate of ZEMIO  (Zemio)Local: Sultanat de ZÉMIO (fr) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (ar) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (zne)  (Zémio)



3 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) Queen Laure-Therese I
BALKAN League for the BALKAN Confederation  (Paris) Balkan League
CUNANI Free State of CUNANI  (Cayenne) President Adolph Brezet



Military entity abroad or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)


26 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
AIR SPORTS World Air Sports Federation : WASF  (Lausanne)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
ELECTROTECHNICAL International Electrotechnical Commission : IEC  (London)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GREAT POWERS General Act of the Conference of ALGECIRAS  (Algeciras)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : FRANCO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
SANITARY International SANITARY Convention  (Paris)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS Frenco-Spanish International Convention on TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS  (Forges d''Abel)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ALSATIA-LORRAINE Imperial Territory of ALSATIA-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)
CLIPPERTON ISLAND British Pacific Islands Company lease on the Mexican Colony of CLIPPERTON ISLAND  (Clipperton)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)

Ѻ Ѻ Ѻ
   
Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Martucci Dave, DMA (US). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .


  Creative Commons License Licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2020-APR-24.