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1904-SEP-19

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French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol

President Emile Loubet
(ruler of FRANCE since 1900-01-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Paris(Paris)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

BELFORT Arrondissement of the Territory of BELFORT  (Belfort)Local: Territoire de BELFORT (fr)  (Belfort)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)


1 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polity

INDOCHINA French Government-General of the Union of INDO-CHINA  (Hanoi) President Emile Loubet


11 Assisted Entities

AGADEZ Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air : Sultanate of AGADEZ Vassal of France  (Agades) Amenokal Uthman Mikitan bin Abd Al-Qadir
ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Josep Laguarda i Fenollera
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Hanfade
CRETE Cretan State : International Council of the Principality of CRETE under Ottoman Suzerainty  (Chania) King George I
DAR-KUTI Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele) Sultan Muhammad al-Senussi
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne) Sultan Kadda Loitah
HOGGAR KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation under French Suzerainty  (Abalessa) Amenokal Attici ag Amellal
KONG Wattara Empire of KONG  (Kong) Emperor Pinntie Ba
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protected State]  (Monaco) Prince Albert I
TIBESTI French Zone of Influence in the Kingdom of the Teda Confederation of TIBESTI  (Zouar) Derdo Guetty I
TUNISIA Autonomous Regency of TUNIS : French Protectorate of the Tunisian Regency  (Tunis) Muhammad IV Al-Hadi Bey



27 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Claimed ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: TERRE ADÉLIE antarctique française (fr)  ((Paris))
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH CONGO AND DEPENDENCIES Colony of FRENCH CONGO AND DEPENDENCIES  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du CONGO FRANÇAIS ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Libreville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
GABOON GABOON Colony  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du GABON (fr)  (Libreville)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : National Domain of France in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye Saint Mary of the Resurrection of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Tombeau des Rois + Monastère d''Eléona + Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Résurrection d''Abou Gosh)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Local: Dépendance française de l''ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France)
MAURITANIA French Protectorate of MAURITANIA  ((Saint Louis of Senegal))Local: Protectorat français de MAURITANIE (fr) + Mahmiat al-Faransiyat fi MURITANIYAH : محمية الفرنسية في موريتانيا (ar)  ((Saint-Louis du Sénégal))
MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Colonie française de MAYOTTE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
PACIFIC OCEAN General Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Commissariat général de la République dans l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine français de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
UGANGI-SHARI Colony of UBANGI-SHARI Territory  (Abiras)Local: Territoire de l''OUBANGUI-CHARI (fr)  (Les Abiras)
UPPER VOLTA French Protectorate of UPPER VOLTA  (Waghadugu)Local: Protectorat français de la HAUTE-VOLTA (fr)  (Woghodogo)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

18 Condominiums:

AGWE French-German Colonial Authority on the Ewe State of AGWE  (Agwe)Local: État d''AGOUÉ (fr) + Staat AGOUÉ (de) + AGWE (ewe)  (Agoué)
BURAPA BURAPA Circle  (Battambang)Local: Monthon BURAPHA  (Phra Tabong)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T''A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH AMOY French Settlement of AMOY  (Amoy)Local: Établissement français d''AMOY (fr)  (Amoy)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE French Sphere of Influence in GOLDEN TRIANGLE  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
KHORAT PLATEAU French Sphere of Influence of KORAT PLATEAU  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Settlement of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: KULANGSU Internationalen Abwicklungs (de) + KULANGSU International Settlement (en) + Institución Internacional de KULANGSU (es) + Établissement international de KOULANGSEU (fr) + Istituzione Internazionale di KULANGSU (it) + Kokusai Kikan KORONSU : 国際機関コロンス (ja) + KULANGSU Internationale Schikking (nl) + Instituição Internacional de KULANGSU (pt) + KULANGYU Mezhdunarodnoye Uregulirovaniye : КУЛАНГЮ международное урегулирование (ru) + KU-LANG-YÛ Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 鼓浪嶼公共租界 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Naval Commissions of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Naval Commissions of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Commissions navales anglo-françaises des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
PAKHOI Concessions of PAKHOI  (Pakhoi)Local: Concessions de PAK-HOI  (Pak-Hoi)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID''IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)
SOUTHERN CHINA French Sphere of Influence in SOUTHERN CHINA  (Yunnan-Fu)Local: CHUNG-HUA NAN-FANG Ti-Ch''ü : 中國南方地區 (zh) + Zone de CHINE DU SUD (fr)  (Yun-Nan-Fu)

Dependent Protectorates:

AJACHE IPO French Protectorate of the Fon Kingdom of AJACHE IPO  (Porto Novo)Local: Protectorat français du Royaume d''ADJATCHÉ IPO (fr) + Abosu AJACHE IPO (fon) + Abosu AJASE IPO (yor)  (Porto-Novo)
ANJOUAN Sultanate of ANJOUAN [French Protectorate]  (Mutsamudu)Local: Sultanat d''ANJOUAN (fr) + Sultani cha NDZUWANI (wni) + Sultanat N''ZUANI : سلطنة نزواني (ar)  (Moutsamoudou)
BAGHIRMI Sultanate of BAGHIRMI [French Protectorate of the Baghirmi Kingdom]  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
BANGASSO French Protectorate of the Nzakara Sultanate of BANGASSO  (Bangasso)Local: Sultanat de BANGASSO (fr) + Sultanat BANGASSOU (nzk)  (Bangasso)
BORKU AND ENNEDI Land and Protectorate of BORKU AND ENNEDI  (Faya)Local: Pays et Protectorat du BORKOU ET ENNEDI (fr)  (Faya)
COMOROS French Protectorate of THE COMOROS  (Mutsamudu)Local: Protectorat français des COMORES (fr)  (Moutsamoudou)
DASSA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASSA  (Dassa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba DASSA (ibb)  (Dassa)
FUTA JALLON French Protectorate of FUTA JALLON Almamate  (Timbo)Local: Protectorat français du FOUTA-DJALON (fr) + Almaami FUUTA JALOO : فوتاجلون (ff)  (Timbo)
GURMA STATES French Protectorate of GURMA STATES  (Nungu)Local: Protectorat français des ÉTATS GOURMANTCHÉS (fr) + Gulimance : GURMA (gux)  (Noungou)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
MAYOTTE MAYOTTE Protectorate  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Protectorat de MAYOTTE (fr) + Jezirah MAYUT : جزيرة مايوت (ar) + Kisiwa cha MAORÉ (swb)  (Dzaoudzi)
NUNGU French Protectorate of the Gurma State of NUNGU  (Nungu)Local: État gourma de NOUNGOU (fr) + NUNGU Nunbado (gux)  (Noungou)
RAFAI Protectorate on the Zande Sultanate of RAFAI  (Rafai)Local: Sultanat de RAFAÏ (fr) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (ar) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (nze)  (Rafaï)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
SENEGAL SENEGAL Colony and Protectorate  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Protectorat et Colonie du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
SOUTHERN TERRITORIES French Protectorate of SOUTHERN TERRITORIES  (Beni-Abbes)Local: Territoire français des TERRITOIRES DU SUD (fr)  (Béni-Abbès)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
TRARZA French Protectorate of the Emirate of TRARZA  (Rosso)Local: Emirat TARARIZA : إمارة الترارزة (ar) + Émirat de TRARZA (fr)  (Rosso)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Protectorate of THE WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Protectorat français des ÎLES WALLIS ET FOUTOUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Ouvéa)
YATENGA French Protectorate of the Mosi State of YATENGA  (Wahiguya)Local: Protectorat français de l''État mossi du YATENGA (fr) + YATENGA Naaba (mos)  (Ouahigouya)
ZEMIO Protectorate on the Azande Sultanate of ZEMIO  (Zemio)Local: Sultanat de ZÉMIO (fr) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (ar) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (nze)  (Zémio)
ZINDER French Protectorate of the Hausa Sultanate of ZINDER  (Zinder)Local: Sultanat de ZINDER (fr) + Sultanat ZINDER : سلطنة زيندر (ha)  (Zinder)



3 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) Queen Laure-Therese I
BALKAN League for the BALKAN Confederation  (Paris) Balkan League
CUNANI Free State of CUNANI  (Cayenne) President Adolph Brezet



Military entity abroad or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)


24 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
ELECTROTECHNICAL International Congress for ELECTROTECHNICAL Commission  (Saint Louis Missouri)
ENTENTE CORDIALE Agreements of ENTENTE CORDIALE  (London)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : FRANCO-SCOTTISH ALLIANCE  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne + Saint Louis Missouri)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
ROMAN CATHOLICISM ROMAN CATHOLIC Church  (Vatican)
SANITARY International SANITARY Convention  (Paris)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS Frenco-Spanish International Convention on TRANS-PYRENEAN RAILWAYS  (Forges d''Abel)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ALSATIA-LORRAINE Imperial Territory of ALSATIA-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
PASSION ISLAND American Concession on Mexican Dependency of PASSION ISLAND  (Clipperton)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)

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Notes:


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ).
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).





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