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1901-AUG-10

Zones: Timeline

French Republic : FR [French Colonial Empire]
(Paris)

French Republic : FR [French Colonial Empire]

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01*
République française : RF (fr) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol*

President Emile Loubet
(ruler of FRANCE since 1900-01-01)
 
 
 
 
Capitals & administrative places*: Paris
(Paris)
Official & national languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Divisions:

BELFORT Arrondissement of the Territory of BELFORT  (Belfort)Local: Territoire de BELFORT (fr)  (Belfort)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)


1 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polity

INDOCHINA Government-General of the Indochinese Union : FRENCH INDO-CHINA [French Protectorate]  (Saigon) President Emile Loubet


15 Assisted Entities

AGADEZ Sultanate of AGADEZ [Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air Vassal of France]  (Agades) Amenokal Muhammad al-Baqiri Sufu
ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old a + (La Seu d´Urgell) r) Coprince Salvador Casanas i Pages
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Muhammad Illalta bin Anfari
BRAKNA Emirate of BRAKNA Confederation  (Aleg) Emir Ahmad Wuld Sidi Ali II
CHAMPASACK Kingdom of CHAMPASACK [Vassal State of Siam]  (Bassac) Prince Bua Laphan
CRETE CRETAN State [International Council of the Principality of Crete under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Chania) King George I
DAR-KUTI Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele) Sultan Muhammad al-Senussi
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne) Sultan Hummad Loitah
KONG WATTARA Empire of Kong  (Kong) Emperor Pinntie Ba
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protected State]  (Monaco q) Prince Albert I
TAGANIT Emirate of TAGANIT Confederation  (Tijikja) Emir Bakkar bin Suwaydi Ahmad
TIBESTI Kingdom of the Teda Confederation of TIBESTI [French Zone of Influence]  (Zouar) Derdo Guetty I
TRARZA Emirate of TRARZA Confederation  (Rosso) Emir Ahmad Salum Wuld Ali
TUNISIA Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Autonomous Tunisian Beylicate under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tunis) Ali III Muddat bin Al-Husayn Bey
WESTERN MAURITANIA Emirates of WESTERN MAURITANIA [French Protectorate under Moor Suzerainty]  (Rashid) Sheikh Sidiya Baba



27 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Land of ADELIE LAND [French Claim]  ((Paris))Local: TERRE ADÉLIE antarctique française (fr)  ((Paris))
CAPE BLANC Territory of CAPE BLANC  (Nouadhibou)Local: Territoire du CAP BLANC (fr)  (Nouadhibou)
CHAD Military Territory of the Lands and Protectorates of CHAD  (Fort Lamy)Local: Territoire militaire des Terres et Protectorats du TCHAD (fr)  (Fort Lamy)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers a + Mustapha s)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l´ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger + Mustapha)
FRENCH CONGO AND DEPENDENCIES Colony of FRENCH CONGO AND DEPENDENCIES  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du CONGO FRANÇAIS ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Libreville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU (fr)  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH SAHARA Military Territories of FRENCH SAHARA [French Protectorate]  (Beni-Abbes)Local: Territoires militaires du SAHARA FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Béni-Abbès)
FRENCH SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA Governorate of the FRENCH SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Gouvernorat des ÉTABLISSEMENTS FRANÇAIS DANS L´INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the FRENCH CONCESSION OF SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la CONCESSION FRANÇAISE DE CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA TSU-CHIEH Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST French Somaliland Colony : FRENCH SOMALI COAST  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Fédération de l´AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d´Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d´Abou Gosh)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Local: Dépendance française de l´ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France + Saint Pierre)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France + Saint-Pierre)
MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Colonie française de MAYOTTE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
PACIFIC OCEAN General Commission of the Republic in THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Commissariat général de la République dans l´OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de la Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND [Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb]  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
UPPER VOLTA French Protectorate of UPPER VOLTA  (Waghadugu)Local: Protectorat français de la HAUTE-VOLTA (fr)  (Woghodogo)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)

21 Condominiums:

AGWE French-German Colonial Authority on the Ewe State of AGWE  (Agwe)Local: État d´AGOUÉ (fr) + Staat AGOUÉ (de) + AGWE (ewe)  (Agoué)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T´A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T´o)
FRENCH SHORE Treaty Shore Zone : FRENCH SHORE OF NEWFOUNDLAND  (Port Au Port)Local: Zone du Traité de la Côte : CÔTE FRANÇAISE DE TERRE-NEUVE (fr) + Treaty Shore Zone : FRENCH SHORE (en)  (Port-au-Port)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE GOLDEN TRIANGLE Zone [French Zone of Influence]  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l´ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
KHORAT PLATEAU Provinces of the KORAT PLATEAU [French Zone of Influence]  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
MBAMU ISLAND Neutral Zone of MBAMU ISLAND  (Mbamu)Local: Zone neutre de M´BAMOU (fr)  (M´bamou)
MEKONG ZONE Franco-Siamese Demilitarized Zone : MEKONG ZONE  (Muang Paklay)Local: Zone démilitarisée FRANCO-SIAMOISE (fr) + K̄het Plxdthh̄ār F̄Rạ̀NGṣ̄ES̄-S̄YĀM : เขตปลอดทหารฝรั่งเศส-สยาม (th)  (Muang Pak Lay)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Naval Commissions of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Naval Commissions of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Commissions navales anglo-françaises des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
NINGPO Settlement of NINGPO  (Ningpo)Local: Établissement de NING-PO (fr) + NING-PO Chieh-Suan : 寧波結算 (zh)  (Ning-Po)
PACKOI Foreign Settlements of PACKOI  (Packhoi)Local: Ausländische Siedlungen von PAKHOI (de) + Foreign Settlements of PACKOI (en) + Établissements étrangers de PACKOI (fr) + Insediamenti Stranieri di PAKHOI (it) Assentamentos Estrangeiros de PAKHOI (pt) + PEI-HAI-te Tìng-Chü Tien : 北海的定居點 (zh)  (Packhoi)
PANAMA ISTHMUS ZONE New Company of the Panama Canal : ISTHMUS ZONE  (Ancon)Local: Nouvelle Compagnie du CANAL DE PANAMA (fr) + Zona del ISTMO (es)  (Ancón)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter [Boxer Rebelion]  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS´ ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS´ ISLAND [Condominium of Conference Island]  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l´ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l´Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID´IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)
SOUTHERN CHINA French Sphere of Influence in SOUTHERN CHINA  (Yunnan-Fu)Local: CHUNG-HUA NAN-FANG Ti-Ch´ü : 中國南方地區 (zh) + Zone de CHINE DU SUD (fr)  (Yun-Nan-Fu)
SUEZ CANAL ZONE SUEZ CANAL Demilitarized Zone [Universal Suez Ship Canal Company]  (Port Suez)Local: Universal Suez Ship Canal Company : SUEZ CANAL ZONE (en) + Compagnie universelle du Canal maritime de Suez : ZONE DU CANAL DE SUEZ (fr)  (Port Suez)

Dependent Protectorates:

AJACHE IPO Fon Kingdom of AJACHE IPO [French Protectorate]  (Porto Novo)Local: Royaume d´ADJATCHÉ IPO (fr) + Abosu AJACHE IPO (fon) + Abosu AJASE IPO (yor)  (Porto-Novo)
ALLADA Gun Kingdom of ALLADA [French Protectorate]  (Allada + Togoudo)Local: Royaume goun d´ALLADA (fr) + ALADA Bosu (guw)  (Allada + Togoudo)
ANJOUAN Sultanate of ANJOUAN [French Protectorate]  (Mutsamudu)Local: Sultanat d´ANJOUAN (fr) + Sultani cha NDZUWANI (wni) + Sultanat N´ZUANI : سلطنة نزواني (ar)  (Moutsamoudou)
BAGHIRMI Sultanate of BAGHIRMI [French Protectorate of the Baghirmi Kingdom]  (Massenya)Local: Sultanat du BAGUIRMI (fr) + Mbang TAR BAGRIMMA (bmi) + Sultanat BAQIRMI : سلطانات باقرمي (ar)  (Massenya)
BANGASSO Nzakara Sultanate of BANGASSO [French Protectorate]  (Bangasso)Local: Sultanat de BANGASSO (fr) + Sultanat BANGASSOU (nzk)  (Bangasso)
BORKU AND ENNEDI Land and Protectorate of BORKU AND ENNEDI  (Faya)Local: Pays et Protectorat du BORKOU ET ENNEDI (fr)  (Faya)
COMOROS French Protectorate of the COMOROS  (Mutsamudu)Local: Protectorat français des COMORES (fr)  (Moutsamoudou)
DAMAGARAM Hausa Sultanate of ZINDER [French Protectorate]  (Sorbo Hausa)Local: Sultanat de DAMAGARAM (fr) + Sultanat DAMAGARAM : سلطانات دامامګرم (ha)  (Sorbo Haoussa)
DANHOME Fon Kingdom of AGBOME [French Protectorate of Dahomey]  (Abomey)Local: Royaume d´AGBOMÉ (fr) + Ahosu AGBOME (fon)  (Abomey)
DASA Yoruba Kingdom of DASA [French Protectorate]  (Dasa)Local: Royaume de DASSA (fr) + Oba ÌDÀÁSHÀ (idd)  (Dassa)
FUTA JALLON FUTA JALLON Almamate [French Protectorate]  (Timbo)Local: Protectorat français du FOUTA-DJALON (fr) + Almaami FUUTA JALOO : فوتاجلون (ff)  (Timbo)
GURMA STATES French Protectorate of the GURMA STATES  (Nungu)Local: Protectorat français des ÉTATS GOURMANTCHÉS (fr) + Gulimance : GURMA (gux)  (Noungou)
KETU Yoruba State of KETU [French Protectorate]  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
MAYOTTE MAYOTTE Protectorate  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Protectorat de MAYOTTE (fr) + Jezirah MAYUT : جزيرة مايوت (ar) + Kisiwa cha MAORÉ (swb)  (Dzaoudzi)
NUNGU Gurma State of NUNGU [French Protectorate]  (Nungu)Local: État gourma de NOUNGOU (fr) + NUNGU Nunbado (gux)  (Noungou)
RAFAI Azande Sultanate of RAFAI [French Protectorate]  (Rafai)Local: Sultanat de RAFAÏ (fr) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (ar) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (zne)  (Rafaï)
RAHAITA Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA [French Protectorate]  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
RIMATARA Kingdom of RIMATARA [French Protectorate]  (Amaru)Local: Royaume de RIMATARA (fr) + Ari`i RIMATARA (aut)  (Amaru)
SAVI HWEDA Fon State of SAVI HWEDA [French Protectorate]  (Whydah)Local: État de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
TADJOURA Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA [French Protectorate]  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS Protectorate of THE WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS [French Protectorate]  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Protectorat des ÎLES WALLIS ET FOUTOUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Ouvéa)
YATENGA Mosi State of YATENGA [French Protectorate]  (Wahiguya)Local: État mossi du YATENGA (fr) + YATENGA Naaba (mos)  (Ouahigouya)
ZEMIO Azande Sultanate of ZEMIO [French Protectorate]  (Zemio)Local: Sultanat de ZÉMIO (fr) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (ar) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (zne)  (Zémio)



3 Governments or Movements in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA-in-Exile  (Paris) King Achiles I the Diplomat
BALKAN League for the BALKAN Confederation  (Paris) Balkan League
CUNANI Republic of CUNANI-in-Exile  (Cayenne) President Adolph Brezet



Military entity abroad, special or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l´étranger (fr)  (Paris)


25 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN WILDLIFE Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals Birds and Fish in Africa : LONDON CONVENTION  (London)
AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
CORDIAL AGREEMENT CORDIAL AGREEMENT Cooperation  (London + Paris)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
EIGHT NATIONS EIGHT-NATION Alliance  (Peking)
ELECTRICAL International ELECTRICAL Congress  (Paris)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GREAT POWERS Treaty of MADRID  (Madrid)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
ROMAN CATHOLICISM ROMAN CATHOLIC Church  (Vatican Palace)
SANITARY International SANITARY Confererence  (Paris)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.


Other Territories or Entities within the 2022's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ALSATIA-LORRAINE Imperial Territory of ALSATIA-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
GOUST Republic of GOUST  (Goust)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
PASSION ISLAND Mexican Dependency of PASSION ISLAND [American Concession]  (Clipperton)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
TROMELIN ISLAND Leased Territory of TROMELIN ISLAND  (Tromelin)
ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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