ethnia.org
 

1900-JAN-01

Zones:

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire
(Paris)

French Republic : FRENCH Colonial Empire

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
République française : Empire colonial FRANÇAIS (fr) PCA Member
Emblem or Symbol

President Emile Loubet
(ruler of FRANCE since 1900-01-01)
Capital:Paris - (Paris)
Official languages: French (fr) .

Mainland:


FRANCE FRENCH Republic  (Paris)

2 Mainland Divisions:

BELFORT Arrondissement of the Territory of BELFORT  (Belfort)Local: Territoire de BELFORT (fr)  (Belfort)
METROPOLE Departments of METROPOLE  (Paris)Local: Départements de la MÉTROPOLE (fr)  (Paris)


4 Largely Autonomous or Semi-Independent Polities

BRAKNA Emirate of BRAKNA Confederation  (Aleg) Emir Ahmad Wuld Sidi Ali II
INDOCHINA French Government-General of the Union of INDO-CHINA  (Saigon) President Emile Loubet
TAGANIT Emirate of TAGANIT Confederation  (Tijikja) Emir Bakkar bin Suwaydi Ahmad
TRARZA Emirate of TRARZA Confederation  (Rosso) Emir Ahmad Salum Wuld Ali


13 Assisted Entities

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Salvador Casanas i Pages
AUSSA Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa) Sultan Muhammad Illalta bin Anfari
BAGHIRMI Sultanate of BAGHIRMI [French Protectorate of the Baghirmi Kingdom]  (Massenya) Sultan Abd ar-Rahman Gawrang II
CHAMPASACK Kingdom of CHAMPASACK [Vassal State of Siam]  (Bassac) Prince Kham-Suk
CRETE CRETAN State [International Council of the Principality of Crete under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Chania) King George I
CUNANI Republic of CUNANI  (Cunani) President Albert Franken
DAR-KUTI Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele) Sultan Muhammad al-Senussi
GOBAD Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne) Sultan Hummad Loitah
KONG Wattara Empire of KONG  (Kong) Emperor Pinntie Ba
MONACO Principality of MONACO [French Protected State]  (Monaco) Prince Albert I
MURI French Zone of Influence of the Fulbe State of MURI Emirate  (Hamarua) Emir Hasan dan Muhammadu Nya
TUNISIA Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Autonomous Tunisian Regency under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tunis) Ali III Muddat bin Al-Husayn Bey
WESTERN MAURITANIA French Protectorate of the Emirates of WESTERN MAURITANIA under Moor Suzerainty  (Rashid) Sheikh Sidiya Baba



33 Territories:

ADELIE LAND French Antarctic Claimed ADELIE LAND  ((Paris))Local: TERRE ADÉLIE antarctique française (fr)  ((Paris))
CANTON BAY CANTON BAY Leased Territory  (Chankiang)Local: Territoire de la BAIE DE CANTON (fr) + Tsu-Chieh KUANG-CHOU-WAN : 租界廣州灣 (zh)  (Chan-Kiang)
DOSO Djerma Kingdom of DOSO  (Doso)Local: Royaume djerma de DOSSO (fr) + Jermakoy DOSSO (dje)  (Dosso)
FRENCH ALGERIA Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers)Local: Gouvernorat-général de l''ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH CONGO AND DEPENDENCIES Colony of FRENCH CONGO AND DEPENDENCIES  (Libreville)Local: Colonie du CONGO FRANÇAIS ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Libreville)
FRENCH GUIANA Colony of FRENCH GUIANA  (Cayenne)Local: Colonie de la GUYANE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Cayenne)
FRENCH HANKOW French Concession at HANKOW  (Hankow French Concession)Local: Concession française à HANKÉOU (fr)  (Concession Française de Hankéou)
FRENCH INDIA French Settlements in INDIA  (Pondicherry)Local: Établissements français dans l''INDE (fr)  (Pondichéry)
FRENCH SAHARA Protectorate of the Military Territories of FRENCH SAHARA  (Beni-Abbes)Local: Territoires militaires du SAHARA FRANÇAIS (fr)  (Béni-Abbès)
FRENCH SHAMEEN French Concession of SHAMEEN  (Shameen French Concession)Local: Concession française de SHAMEEN (fr)  (Concession Française de Shameen)
FRENCH SHANGHAI Municipal Council of the French Concession of SHANGHAI  (Shanghai French Concession)Local: Conseil municipal de la Concession française de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + SHANG-HAI FA Tsu-Chieh Shih Cheng-Chü : 上海法租界市政局 (zh)  (Concession Française de Changhaï)
FRENCH SOMALI COAST FRENCH SOMALILAND Colony : French Somali Coast  (Jibuti)Local: Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH TIENTSIN TIENTSIN French Concession  (Tientsin French Concession)Local: Concession française de TIENTSIN (fr)  (Concession Française de Tientsin)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Local: Fédération de l''AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES General Council of GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Basse-Terre)Local: Conseil général de la GUADELOUPE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Basse-Terre)
HOLY LAND French Territories in Jerusalem : French National Domain in THE HOLY LAND  (Church of Saint Anne + Eleona Monastery + Tomb of the Kings + Abbaye of Abu Gosh)Local: Domaine national français en TERRE SAINTE (fr)  (Église Sainte-Anne + Monastère d''Eléona + Tombeau des Rois + Abbaye d''Abou Gosh)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Local: Dépendance française de l''ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
KONNI French Occupied Hausa State of KONNI  (Birnin-Konni)Local: État haoussa de KONNI (fr) + Askya KONNI (ha)  (Birni-Nkonni)
LOGONE LOGONE Territory  (Lai)Local: Territoire du LOGONÉ (fr)  (Laï)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Local: Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MARADI Katsina Hausa State of MARADI  (Maradi)Local: État haoussa katsinais de MARADI (fr) + Sarkin Katsina MARADI : ساركين كاتسينا مرادي (ha)  (Maradi)
MARTINIQUE General Council of MARTINIQUE  (Fort of France + Saint Pierre)Local: Conseil général de la MARTINIQUE (fr)  (Fort-de-France + Saint-Pierre)
MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES French Colony of MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Colonie française de MAYOTTE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
MIDDLE SHARI MIDDLE SHARI Territory  (Kokaga)Local: Territoire du MOYEN-CHARI (fr)  (Kokaga)
PACIFIC OCEAN High Commission of THE PACIFIC OCEAN  (Numea)Local: Haut-Commissariat de l''OCÉAN PACIFIQUE (fr)  (Nouméa)
REUNION French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Local: Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de La Réunion)
ROME AND LORETO Pious French Establishments in ROME AND LORETO  (Villa Bonaparte)Local: Pieux Établissements français à ROME ET LORETTE (fr) + Pii Stabilimenti francesi a ROMA E LORETO (it)  (Villa Bonaparte)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND : Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb  (Longwood House)Local: Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON French Colony of SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON  (Saint Pierre)Local: Colonie française de SAINT-PIERRE-ET-MIQUELON (fr)  (Saint-Pierre)
UPPER SHARI UPPER SHARI Civil Region  (Fort Crampel)Local: Région civile du HAUT-CHARI (fr)  (Fort-Crampel)
UPPER VOLTA French Protectorate of UPPER VOLTA  (Waghadugu)Local: Protectorat français de la HAUTE-VOLTA (fr)  (Woghodogo)
VILLA MEDICI French Academy in Rome : French Possession of VILLA MEDICI  (Villa Medici)Local: Académie de France à Rome : Domaine français de la VILLA MÉDICIS (fr)  (Villa Médicis)
ZINDER French Protectorate of the Hausa Sultanate of ZINDER  (Damagaram)Local: Sultanat de ZINDER (fr) + Sultanat DAMAGARAM : سلطانات دامامګرم (ha)  (Damagaram)

19 Condominiums:

CARSEWENE Republic of CARSEWENE  (Carsewene)Local: République du CARSEVÈNE (fr) + Republic of CARSEWENE (en)  (Carsevène)
CHEFOO Settlement of CHEFOO  (Chefoo)Local: Settlement of CHEFOO (en) + Établissement de TCHÉ-FOU (fr) + CHE-FU : 浙輻 (zh)  (Chefoo)
FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA French Settlements in FOOCHOW AND ARSENAL PAGODA  (Arsenal Pagoda)Local: Établissements français à FOUTCHÉOU ET ARSENAL PAGODA (fr) + Fa-Kuo Tsi-Kou FU-CHOU A-SEN-NA PAO-T''A : 法國機構福州阿森納寶塔 (zh)  (Arsenal Pagoda)
FRENCH CHUNGKING French Marine Establishment in CHUNGKING  (Wangchiato)Local: Établissement de la Marine française à TCHONG-KING (fr)  (Wang-Chia-T''o)
FRENCH SHORE Treaty Shore Zone : FRENCH SHORE of Newfoundland  (Port Au Port)Local: Zone du Traité de la Côte : CÔTE FRANÇAISE DE TERRE-NEUVE (fr) + Treaty Shore Zone : FRENCH SHORE (en)  (Port-au-Port)
GOLDEN TRIANGLE French Zone of Influence in GOLDEN TRIANGLE  (Mae Sai)Local: S̄āmh̄elī̀ym Thxngkhả : SOP RUAK - สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ : สบรวก (th)  (Mae Sai)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)Local: GREEN ISLAND Archipelago (en) + Archipel de l''ÎLE VERTE (fr)  (Île Verte)
HAINAM ISLAND French Sphere of Influence on HAINAM ISLAND  (Hoi How)Local: HAI-NAN Tao : 海南島 (zh)  (Hoi-Hao)
KHORAT PLATEAU French Zone of Influence of KORAT PLATEAU  (Khorat)Local: P̣hūmip̣hākh THĪ̀RĀBS̄ŪNG KHORĀCH : ภูมิภาคที่ราบสูงโคราช (th) + PHAKTAUAENOOK Siangneu : ພາກຕາເວັນອອກສຽງເໜືອ (lo)  (Muang Nakhon Ratcha Sima)
KULANGSU ISLAND International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND  (Kulangsu)Local: Internationale Konzession von KULANGSU-INSEL (de) + International Concession of KULANGSU ISLAND (en) + Concesión Internacional de ISLA KULANGSU (es) + Concession internationale de l''ÎLE KOULANGSEU (fr) + Concessione internazionale dell''iSOLA KULANGSU (it) + KORONSU-JIMA no Kokusai Sokai : コロンス島の国際租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van KULANGSU EILAND (nl) + Concessão Internacional da ILHA KULANGSU (pt) + Kulan : Mezhdunarodnyy Kontsessiya KULANGYU OSTROVA : Международный Концессия КУЛАНГЮ ОСТРОВА (ru) + KU-LANG-YÜ Kuo-Tsì T''e-Hsü Ching-Ying : 鼓浪嶼國際特許經營 (zh)  (Kulangyu)
NEW HEBRIDES Anglo-French Naval Commissions of NEW HEBRIDES  (Port Vila)Local: Anglo-French Naval Commissions of NEW HEBRIDES (en) + Commissions navales anglo-françaises des NOUVELLES-HÉBRIDES (fr)  (Port Vila)
NINGPO Settlement of NINGPO  (Ningpo)Local: Établissement de NING-PO (fr) + NING-PO Chieh-Suan : 寧波結算 (zh)  (Ning-Po)
PACKOI Foreign Settlements of PACKOI  (Packhoi)Local: Ausländische Siedlungen von PAKHOI (de) + Foreign Settlements of PACKOI (en) + Établissements étrangers de PACKOI (fr) + Insediamenti Stranieri di PAKHOI (it) Assentamentos Estrangeiros de PAKHOI (pt) + PEI-HAI-te Tìng-Chü Tien : 北海的定居點 (zh)  (Packhoi)
PANAMA ISTHMUS ZONE New Company of the Panama Canal : ISTHMUS ZONE  (Ancon)Local: Nouvelle Compagnie du CANAL DE PANAMA (fr) + Zona del ISTMO (es)  (Ancón)
PEKING LEGATIONS PEKING LEGATION Quarter [Boxer Rebelion]  (Peking Legation Quarter)Local: PEKING LEGATION Quarter (en) + Quartier des LÉGATIONS DE PÉKIN (fr) + TUNG CHIAO MIN Hsiang : 東交民巷 (zh)  (Tung Chiao-Min Hsiang)
PHEASANTS'' ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANTS'' ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr)  (Île de l''Hôpital)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT International Concession of Shanghai Municipal Council : SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT  (Shanghai International Settlement)Local: SHANGHAI International Settlement (en) + SHANGHAI International Koncession (da) + SCHANGHAI Internationalen Konzessionen (de) + Concesión Internacional de SHANGHÁI (es) + Concession Internationale de CHANGHAÏ (fr) + Concessione Internazionale di SCIANGAI (it) + SHIYANHAI Kiyoudou Sokai : 上海共同租界 (ja) + Internationale Concessie van SHANGHAI (nl) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (no) + Concessão Internacional de XANGAI (pt) + SHANHAYSKIY Mezhdunarodny Settlment : ШАНХАЙСКИЙ международный сеттльмент (ru) + SHANGHAI International Settlement (sv) + SHANG-HAI Kung-Kung Tsu-Chieh : 上海公共租界 (zh)  (Shanghai International Settlement)
SHEIKH SAID French Colony of SHEIKH SAID Territory  (Sheikh Said)Local: Territoire de CHEIKH-SAÏD (fr) + ŞEYH SAID''IN Eyalet : لشيخ سعيد (ota) + Eradi SHEIKH SAID : أراضي الشيخ سعيد (ar)  (Cheikh Saïd)

Dependent Protectorates:

AGBOME French Protectorate of the Fon Kingdom of AGBOME : Danhome  (Abomey)Local: Protectorat français du Royaume d''AGBOMÉ (fr) + Ahosu AGBOME (fon)  (Abomey)
AJACHE IPO French Protectorate of the Fon Kingdom of AJACHE IPO  (Porto Novo)Local: Protectorat français du Royaume d''ADJATCHÉ IPO (fr) + Abosu AJACHE IPO (fon) + Abosu AJASE IPO (yor)  (Porto-Novo)
ANJOUAN Sultanate of ANJOUAN [French Protectorate]  (Mutsamudu)Local: Sultanat d''ANJOUAN (fr) + Sultani cha NDZUWANI (wni) + Sultanat N''ZUANI : سلطنة نزواني (ar)  (Moutsamoudou)
BANGASSO French Protectorate of the Nzakara Sultanate of BANGASSO  (Bangasso)Local: Sultanat de BANGASSO (fr) + Sultanat BANGASSOU (nzk)  (Bangasso)
COMOROS French Protectorate of THE COMOROS  (Mutsamudu)Local: Protectorat français des COMORES (fr)  (Moutsamoudou)
DASA French Protectorate of the Yoruba Kingdom of DASA  (Dasa)Local: Royaume traditionnel de DASSA (fr) + Oba ÌDÀÁSHÀ (idd)  (Dassa)
FUTA JALLON French Protectorate of FUTA JALLON Almamate  (Timbo)Local: Protectorat français du FOUTA-DJALON (fr) + Almaami FUUTA JALOO : فوتاجلون (ff)  (Timbo)
GURMA STATES French Protectorate of GURMA STATES  (Nungu)Local: Protectorat français des ÉTATS GOURMANTCHÉS (fr) + Gulimance : GURMA (gux)  (Noungou)
KETU French Protectorate of the Yoruba State of KETU  (Ketu)Local: État de KÉTOU (fr) + Oba KETU (nqg) + Alaketu KETU (ijj)  (Kétou)
MAYOTTE MAYOTTE Protectorate  (Dzaoudzi)Local: Protectorat de MAYOTTE (fr) + Jezirah MAYUT : جزيرة مايوت (ar) + Kisiwa cha MAORÉ (swb)  (Dzaoudzi)
NUNGU French Protectorate of the Gurma State of NUNGU  (Nungu)Local: État gourma de NOUNGOU (fr) + NUNGU Nunbado (gux)  (Noungou)
RAFAI Protectorate on the Zande Sultanate of RAFAI  (Rafai)Local: Sultanat de RAFAÏ (fr) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (ar) + Sultanat RAFAI : سلطنة رفاعي (zne)  (Rafaï)
RAHAITA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of RAHAITA  (Nouo-Dela + (Rahaita))Local: Sultanat afar de RAHAÏTA (fr) + RAHAYTO Sultanat (aa)  (Nouo-Dela + (Raheita))
RIMATARA French Protectorate of the Kingdom of RIMATARA  (Amaru)Local: Royaume de RIMATARA (fr) + Ari`i RIMATARA (aut)  (Amaru)
RURUTU French Protectorate of the Kingdom of RURUTU  (Moerai)Local: Royaume de RURUTU (fr) + Ari`i RURUTU (aut)  (Moerai)
SAVI HWEDA French Protectorate of SAVI HWEDA  (Whydah)Local: Protectorat français de SAVI HWÉDA (fr) + SAVI HWEDA (sxw) + SAVI HWEDA (fon)  (Ouidah)
TADJOURA French Protectorate of the Afar Sultanate of TADJOURA  (Tadjoura)Local: Sultanat afar de TADJOURA (fr) + TAGÓRRI Sultanat : سلطنة تاجورا (aa)  (Tadjoura)
WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS French Protectorate of THE WALLIS AND FUTUNA ISLANDS  (Mata-Utu on Uvea)Local: Protectorat français des ÎLES WALLIS ET FOUTOUNA (fr)  (Mata-Utu sur Ouvéa)
YATENGA French Protectorate of the Mosi State of YATENGA  (Wahiguya)Local: Protectorat français de l''État mossi du YATENGA (fr) + YATENGA Naaba (mos)  (Ouahigouya)
ZEMIO Protectorate on the Azande Sultanate of ZEMIO  (Zemio)Local: Sultanat de ZÉMIO (fr) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (ar) + Sultanat ZEMIO : سلطنة زامي (zne)  (Zémio)



2 Governments in Exile

ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA Kingdom of ARAUCANIA AND PATAGONIA in Exile  (Paris) King Achiles I the Diplomat
BALKAN League for the BALKAN Confederation  (Paris) Pavlos Argyriades



Military entity abroad or locally shared:

FRENCH WAR GRAVES FRENCH WAR GRAVES Abroad  (Paris)Local: TOMBES MILITAIRES FRANÇAISES à l''étranger (fr)  (Paris)


22 Organisations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AIR International AERIAL Congress  (Paris)
BRUSSELS CONVENTION Convention relative to the Slave Trade and Importation into Africa of Firearms Ammunition and Spiritous Liquors : BRUSSELS CONVENTION  (Brussels)
CORDIAL AGREEMENT CORDIAL AGREEMENT Cooperation  (London + Paris)
DANUBE European Commission of the Danube-ECD and International Danube Commission-IDB : DANUBE Commissions  (Galatz)
ELECTRICAL International ELECTRICAL Congress  (Paris)
FRANCO-RUSSIAN ALLIANCE FRANCO-RUSSIAN Alliance  (Moscow + Paris)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
HAGUE CONVENTION Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes : Hague Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property : UIBPIP  (Berne)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BUREAU for Permanent Arbitration  (Berne)
LATIN UNION Latin Monetary Union : LMU  (Paris)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
METEOROLOGY International Meteorological Organization : IMO  (Geneva)
OLD ALLIANCE Old Alliance : AULD ALLIANCE between France and Scotland  (Saint Germain in Laye)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
RHINE Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine : CCNR  (Mannheim)
ROMAN CATHOLICISM ROMAN CATHOLIC Church  (Vatican)
SANITARY International SANITARY Confererence  (Paris)
SEA International Marine Conference : IMC  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Convention : International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)



Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ALSATIA-LORRAINE Imperial Territory of ALSATIA-LORRAINE  (Strasbourg)
FERN ISLAND Hunter Island : FERN ISLAND  (-)
GREEN ISLAND GREEN ISLAND Archipelago  (Green Island)
MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS MATTHEW AND HUNTER ISLANDS Group  (-)
MATTHEW ISLAND Islets of MATTHEW ISLAND  (-)
PASSION ISLAND American Concession on Mexican Dependency of PASSION ISLAND  (Clipperton)
ROYASQUE COUNTRY Communes of ROYASQUE COUNTRY  (Tenda + Briga)
- ethnia.org -
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * others are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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