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2018-NOV-09

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SPAIN  EUROPEAN UNION 
  
(Madrid) - (Brussels) -

Kingdom of SPAIN

Flag or logo since 1981-12-19
Reino de ESPAÑA (es)
Emblem or Symbol

King Philip VI
(ruler of SPAIN since 2014-06-19)

President Donald Tusk
(ruler of EUROPEAN UNION since 2014-12-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:Madrid(Madrid)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Metropole:


SPAIN Kingdom of SPAIN  (Madrid)

17 Federated or Constituent Metropolitan Divisions:

ANDALUSIA Autonomous Community of ANDALUSIA  (Sevilla + Granada)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de ANDALUCÍA (es)  (Sevilla + Granada)
ARAGON Autonomous Community of ARAGON  (Saragossa)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de ARAGÓN (es) + Comunitat Autònoma d''ARAGÓ (ca) + Comunidat Autonoma d''ARAGÓN (an)  (Zaragoza)
ASTURIAS Autonomous Community of the Principality of ASTURIAS  (Oviedo)Local: Comunidad Autónoma del Principado de ASTURIAS (es) + Comunidá Autónoma de Principáu d''ASTURIES (ast)  (Oviedo)
BALEARIC ISLANDS Autonomous Community of BALEARIC ISLANDS  (Palma of Majorca)Local: Comunitat Autònoma de les ILLES BALEARS (ca) + Comunidad Autónoma de las ISLAS BALEARES (es)  (Palma)
BASQUE COUNTRY Autonomous Community of BASQUE COUNTRY  (Vitoria-Gasteiz)Local: EUSKAL Autonomia Erkidegoa (eu) + Comunidad Autónoma del PAÍS VASCO (es)  (Vitoria-Gasteiz)
CANARY ISLANDS Autonomous Community of THE CANARY ISLANDS  (Santa Cruz of Tenerife + Las Palmas of Great Canary)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CANARIAS (es)  (Santa Cruz de Tenerife + Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
CANTABRIA Autonomous Community of CANTABRIA  (Santander)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CANTABRIA (es)  (Santander)
CASTILE AND LEON Autonomous Community of CASTILE AND LEON  (Valladolid + Burgos + Leon)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CASTILLA Y LEÓN (es)  (Valladolid + Burgos + León)
CASTILE-THE MANCHA Autonomous Community of CASTILE-THE MANCHA  (Toledo + Albacete)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (es)  (Toledo + Albacete)
CATALONIA Autonomous Community of CATALONIA : Generality of Catalonia  (Barcelona)Local: Comunitat de CATALUNYA : Generalitat de Catalunya (ca) + Comunidad de CATALUÑA : Generalidad de Cataluña (es) + Comunitat de CATALONHA (oci) + Comunitat de CATALUNYA : Generalitat de Catalunya (csc)  (Barcelona)
EXTREMADURA Autonomous Community of EXTREMADURA  (Merida)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de EXTREMADURA (es)  (Mérida)
GALICIA Autonomous Community of GALICIA  (Saint James of Compostela + Corunna)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de GALICIA (es) + Comunidade Autónoma de GALIZA (gl)  (Santiago de Compostela + A Coruña)
MADRID Autonomous Community of Madrid : Community of MADRID  (Madrid)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid : Comunidad de MADRID (es)  (Madrid)
MURCIA Autonomous Community of the Region of MURCIA  (Murcia + Cartagena)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de MURCIA (es)  (Murcia + Cartagena)
NAVARRE Chartered Community of NAVARRE : Foral Community of NAVARRE  (Pamplona)Local: Comunidad Foral de NAVARRA (es) + Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea : NAFARROA (eu)  (Pamplona)
RIOJA-LOGRONO Autonomous Community of THE RIOJA  (Logrono)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de LA RIOJA (es)  (Logroño)
VALENCIAN COUNTRY Autonomous VALENCIAN Community : Valencian Generality  (Valencia)Local: Comunidad VALENCIANA (es) + Comunitat VALENCIANA (ca)  (València)



1 Assisted Entity

ANDORRA Principality of ANDORRA  (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Enric Vives Sicilia



1 Territory in Africa:

CEUTA AND MELILLA Autonomous Cities in North Africa : CEUTA AND MELILLA  (Ceuta + Melilla)Local: Ciudades Autónomas del África Septentrional : CEUTA Y MELILLA (es)  (Ceuta + Melilla)

4 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

CEUTA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of CEUTA BORDER FENCE  (Ceuta Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE CEUTA (es)  (Valla de Ceuta)
EUNAVFOR ATALANTA European Naval Force in Somalia Coasts : EUNAVFOR ATALANTA  ((Djibouti))Local: European Naval Force in Somalia Coasts : EUNAVFOR ATALANTA (en) + Force navale européenne sur les Côtes de Somalie : EUNAVFOR ATALANTE (fr)  ((Djibouti))
MELILLA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of MELILLA BORDER FENCE  (Melilla Border Fence)Local: Zona neutral de la VALLA DE MELILLA (es)  (Valla de Melilla)
PARSLEY ISLAND Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Leila)Local: Jazirat TOURAH : جزيرة تورة (ar) + Territorio del ISLA DEL PEREJIL (es)  (Laila)

Other notable Territories in Africa:

ALHUCEMAS ISLANDS Spanish Place of Sovereignty of ALHUCEMAS ISLANDS  (Penon of Alhucemas)Local: Plaza de soberanía de las ISLAS ALHUCEMAS (es)  (Peñón de Alhucemas)
CANARY ISLANDS Autonomous Community of THE CANARY ISLANDS  (Santa Cruz of Tenerife + Las Palmas of Great Canary)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CANARIAS (es)  (Santa Cruz de Tenerife + Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
CEUTA Autonomous City of CEUTA  (Ceuta)Local: Ciudad Autónoma de CEUTA (es)  (Ceuta)
CHAFARINAS ISLANDS Spanish Place of Sovereignty of CHAFARINAS ISLANDS  (Isabel The Second Island)Local: Plaza de soberanía de las ISLAS CHAFARINAS (es)  (Isla de Isabel Dos)
MELILLA Autonomous City of MELILLA  (Melilla)Local: Ciudad Autónoma de MELILLA (es)  (Melilla)
PENON OF VELEZ OF THE GOMERA Spanish Place of Sovereignty of PENON OF VELEZ OF THE GOMERA  (Penon of Velez of the Gomera)Local: Plaza de soberanía del PEÑÓN DE VÉLEZ DE LA GOMERA (es)  (Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera)

6 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

AIRCOM Allied Air Command : AIRCOM  (Ramstein)Local: Allied Air Command : AIRCOM (en) + Commandement Aérien Allié : AIRCOM (fr)  (Ramstein)
NATO SPAIN NATO Rapid Deployable Corps - Spain  (Valencia)Local: NATO Rapid Deployable Corps - Spain (en)  (València)
NEUTRAL GROUND Gibraltar NEUTRAL GROUND  (Mill Tower)Local: Gibraltar NEUTRAL GROUND (en) + ZONA NEUTRAL de Gibraltar (es)  (Torre del Molino)
PHEASANT ISLAND Condominium of PHEASANT ISLAND : Condominium of Conference Island  (Hospital Island)Local: Condominio de la ISLA DE LOS FAISANES (es) + Condominium de l''ÎLE DES FAISANS (fr) + FAISAIEN Uhartea o Konpantzia (eu)  (Konpantzia)
PYRENEAN FACERIES Trans-Borders Valleys of PYRENEAN FACERIES  (Baigorri + Baztan)Local: Valles Transfronterizas de las FACERIAS PIRENAICAS (es) + Vallées transfrontalières des FACERIES PYRÉNÉENNES (fr)  (Baigorri + Baztan)
SPANISH-AMERICAN BASES SPANISH-AMERICAN Air Bases  (Moron Air Base + Torrejon Air Base)Local: SPANISH-AMERICAN Air Bases (en) + Bases Aéreas ESPAÑOLAS-AMERICANAS (es)  (Base Aérea de Morón + Base Aérea de Torrejón de Ardoz)

Other notable Territories in Europe:

ALBORAN ALBORAN Island  (Alboran)Local: Isla de ALBORÁN (es)  (Alborán)
ANDALUSIA Autonomous Community of ANDALUSIA  (Sevilla + Granada)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de ANDALUCÍA (es)  (Sevilla + Granada)
ARAGON Autonomous Community of ARAGON  (Saragossa)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de ARAGÓN (es) + Comunitat Autònoma d''ARAGÓ (ca) + Comunidat Autonoma d''ARAGÓN (an)  (Zaragoza)
ARAN VALLEY Autonomous Comarca of ARAN VALLEY  (Vielha e Mijaran)Local: Comarque Autónoma del VAL D''ARAN (gsc) + Comarca Autònoma de la VALL D''ARAN (ca) + Comarca Autònoma del VALLE DE ARÁN (es)  (Vielha e Mijaran)
ASTURIAS Autonomous Community of the Principality of ASTURIAS  (Oviedo)Local: Comunidad Autónoma del Principado de ASTURIAS (es) + Comunidá Autónoma de Principáu d''ASTURIES (ast)  (Oviedo)
BALEARIC ISLANDS Autonomous Community of BALEARIC ISLANDS  (Palma of Majorca)Local: Comunitat Autònoma de les ILLES BALEARS (ca) + Comunidad Autónoma de las ISLAS BALEARES (es)  (Palma)
BASQUE COUNTRY Autonomous Community of BASQUE COUNTRY  (Vitoria-Gasteiz)Local: EUSKAL Autonomia Erkidegoa (eu) + Comunidad Autónoma del PAÍS VASCO (es)  (Vitoria-Gasteiz)
CANTABRIA Autonomous Community of CANTABRIA  (Santander)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CANTABRIA (es)  (Santander)
CASTILE AND LEON Autonomous Community of CASTILE AND LEON  (Valladolid + Burgos + Leon)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CASTILLA Y LEÓN (es)  (Valladolid + Burgos + León)
CASTILE-THE MANCHA Autonomous Community of CASTILE-THE MANCHA  (Toledo + Albacete)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (es)  (Toledo + Albacete)
CATALONIA Autonomous Community of CATALONIA : Generality of Catalonia  (Barcelona)Local: Comunitat de CATALUNYA : Generalitat de Catalunya (ca) + Comunidad de CATALUÑA : Generalidad de Cataluña (es) + Comunitat de CATALONHA (oci) + Comunitat de CATALUNYA : Generalitat de Catalunya (csc)  (Barcelona)
EXTREMADURA Autonomous Community of EXTREMADURA  (Merida)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de EXTREMADURA (es)  (Mérida)
GALICIA Autonomous Community of GALICIA  (Saint James of Compostela + Corunna)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de GALICIA (es) + Comunidade Autónoma de GALIZA (gl)  (Santiago de Compostela + A Coruña)
GREATER BASQUE COUNTRY Basque Fatherland and Liberty : ETA  (Pamplona + (Bayonne))Local: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna : ETA (eu)  (Pamplona + (Bayonne))
LLIVIA Enclave of LLIVIA Municipality  (Llivia)Local: Municipi de LLÍVIA (ca) + Municipio de LLIVIA (es)  (Llívia)
MADRID Autonomous Community of Madrid : Community of MADRID  (Madrid)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid : Comunidad de MADRID (es)  (Madrid)
MOLINA-UPPER TAGUS Comarca of Lordship of MOLINA-UPPER TAGUS  (Molina of Aragon)Local: Comarca de Señorío de MOLINA-ALTO TAJO (es)  (Molina de Aragón)
MURCIA Autonomous Community of the Region of MURCIA  (Murcia + Cartagena)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de MURCIA (es)  (Murcia + Cartagena)
NAVARRE Chartered Community of NAVARRE : Foral Community of NAVARRE  (Pamplona)Local: Comunidad Foral de NAVARRA (es) + Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea : NAFARROA (eu)  (Pamplona)
RIOJA-LOGRONO Autonomous Community of THE RIOJA  (Logrono)Local: Comunidad Autónoma de LA RIOJA (es)  (Logroño)
VALENCIAN COUNTRY Autonomous VALENCIAN Community : Valencian Generality  (Valencia)Local: Comunidad VALENCIANA (es) + Comunitat VALENCIANA (ca)  (València)




1 Government in Exile

EQUATORIAL GUINEA IN EXILE Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea : Government of EQUATORIAL GUINEA IN EXILE  (Madrid) President Severo Moto




102 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)


AFRICAN BANK African Development Bank : AFDB  (Tunis)
ANTARCTICA Antarctic Treaty System : ATS  (Buenos Aires)
ASIA-EUROPE Asia-Europe Meeting : ASEM  (Brussels + Singapore)
ASIAN BANK Asian Development Bank : ADB  (Mandaluyong City)
ASIAN INFRASTRUCTURE BANK Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank : AIIB  (Beijing)
CENTRAL BANK Bank for International Settlements : BIS  (Basle)
CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research : CERN  (Meyrin)
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROHIBITION Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons : OPCW  (The Hague)
CIVIL STATUS International Commission of Civil Status : ICCS  (Strasbourg)
COMMON FUND Common Fund for Commodities : CFC  (Geneva)
CUSTOMS World Customs Organization : WCO  (Brussels)
EAST-WEST Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe : OSCE  (Vienna)
ENERGY International Energy Charter : IEC  (Woluwe-Saint Lambert)
ESA European Space Agency : ESA  (Paris)
EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites : EUMETSAT  (Darmstadt)
EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community : EAEC  (Brussels)
EURO-ATLANTIC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council : EAPC  (Sintra)
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation : EUROCONTROL  (Brussels-Haren)
EUROCORPS European Corps : EUROCORPS  (Strasbourg)
EUROPE Council of Europe : CE  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN BANK European Bank for Reconstruction and Development : EBRD  (London)
EUROPEAN PATENT European Patent Organisation : EPORG  (Munich)
EUROPEAN SCIENCE European Science Foundation : ESF  (Strasbourg)
EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY European Southern Observatory : ESO  (Garching near Munich)
EUROSYSTEM European Central Bank : ECB  (Frankfort on the Main)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)
FIEP Association of the European and Mediterranean Police Forces and Gendarmeries with Military Status : FIEP  (Toulon)
FINANCE Financial Stability Board : FSB  (Basle)
GENEVA CONVENTION GENEVA Convention  (Geneva)
GLOBAL FUND The Global Fund to Fight Aids Tuberculosis and Malaria : GFATM  (Vernier-Geneva)
HAGUE CONFERENCE Hague Conference on Private International Law : HCCH  (The Hague)
HAGUE CONVENTION Permanent Court of Arbitration : PCA  (The Hague)
HUMANITARIAN LAW International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission : IHFFC  (Berne)
HYDROGRAPHY International Hydrographic Organization : IHO  (Monaco)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
IBERO-AMERICAN STATES Organization of Ibero-American States for Education Science and Culture : OIS  (Madrid)
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)
IMSO International Mobile Satellite Organization : IMSO  (London)
INTER-AMERICAN BANK Inter-American Development Bank : IADB  (Washington-District of Columbia)
INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION Inter-Parliamentary Union : IPU  (Grand Saconnex)
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT International Criminal Court : ICCT  (The Hague)
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY International Energy Agency : IEA  (Paris)
INTERNATIONAL IDEA International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance : INTERNATIONAL IDEA  (Stockholm)
INTERPOL International Criminal Police Organization : ICPO  (Lyons)
IOM International Organization for Migration : IOM Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
IRENA International Renewable Energy Agency : IRENA  (Masdar City)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
LATIN AMERICAN BANK Andean Development Corporation-Development Bank of Latin America : ADC  (Caracas)
MARITIME LAW International Maritime Committee : IMC  (Antwerp)
MEDITERRANEAN UNION Union for the Mediterranean : UFM  (Barcelona)
MISSILES Missile Technology Control Regime : MTCR  (Paris)
NATO ASSEMBLY North Atlantic Treaty Organization Parliamentary Assembly : NATO-PA  (Brussels)
NATURE CONSERVATION International Union for Conservation of Nature : IUCN  (Gland)
NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE North Atlantic Treaty Organization : NATO  (Brussels)
NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic : OSPAR Convention  (Sintra)
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty : NPT  (New York City)
NUCLEAR TEST BAN Provisional Secretariat of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization : CTBTO  (Vienna)
OCCAR Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation : OCCAR  (Bonn)
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : OECD  (Paris)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PANEUROPA International Paneuropean Union : IPU  (Vienna)
RED CROSS International Committee of the Red Cross : ICRC  (Geneva)
RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies : IFRCS  (Geneva)
REFRIGERATION International Institute of Refrigeration : IIR  (Paris)
SEABED Secretariat of the International Seabed Authority : ISA  (Kingston)
SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE Regional Cooperation Council : RCC  (Sarajevo)
SPAIN-PORTUGAL Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between SPAIN AND PORTUGAL  (Lisbon)
STANDARDIZATION International Organization for Standardization : ISO  (Geneva)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE International Telecommunications Satellite Organization : ITSO  (Washington-District of Columbia)
TRIBUNAL OF THE SEA International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea : ITLOS  (Hamburg)
UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)
UNITED NATIONS United Nations Organization : UNO  (New York City)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)
UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)
UPEACE University for Peace : UPEACE  (Ciudad Colon)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)
WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT The WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies  (Vienna)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres + Saint Cloud)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)
WHALING International Whaling Commission : IWC  (Impington)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)
WORLD TRADE World Trade Organization : WTO  (Geneva)


Other Current Territories within the 2018's internationaly recognized Country boundaries (listed below in grey, it may contain errors)

CEUTA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of CEUTA BORDER FENCE  (Ceuta Border Fence)
MELILLA BORDER FENCE Neutral Zone of MELILLA BORDER FENCE  (Melilla Border Fence)
PARSLEY ISLAND Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Leila)
NATO SPAIN NATO Rapid Deployable Corps - Spain  (Valencia)

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Notes:


   1900.ethnia.org is an essay which goal is to try to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organizations that have existed during the 20th century. The first version of the website dates back from 1996 and had been put online under ethnia.org in 1999. The current version is from 2009 and now allows to search for an entity for any day of the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [rose: country completed at level 2 (province, county, ...), red: level 3 (district, ...), white: level 1 only (region, federated State, ...)]

   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox




 Base sources:

   * World Statesmen, thanks to Ben Cahoon (US): historical polities and their rulers.
   * Statoids, thanks to Gwillim Law (US): historical administrative divisions.
   * Flags Of The World, thanks to Rob Raeside (CA): flags. (the link given is from my mirror of this site)
   * Heraldry of the World, maintained by Ralf Hartemink (NL): coat of arms.
   * Rulers.org, thanks to Benjamin Schemmel (DE): photos of rulers.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US): historical currencies.
   * World History at KMLA, maintained by Alexander Ganse (DE): historical maps.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US): for Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, maintained by Jacques Leclerc (CA): linguistical politics by country.
   * Population Statistics, maintained by Jan Lahmeyer (NL): historical evolution of the population.
   * Wikipedia, for general data, maps, pictures ...
   * Google Books, online library.
   * The other sources are given specifically according to the consulted entity, at bottom page.

   Some of the flags and coat of arms of the website are drawn by myself.

 Specific sources:






Any suggestion, correction, addition or collaboration is welcome and can be sent to .


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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2018-NOV-14.