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(Ottawa) - (London + Westminster) -

British Dominion of CANADA

Flag or logo since 1900-01-01
British Dominion of CANADA (en) + Dominion britannique du CANADA (fr) SDN Observer
Emblem or Symbol

King George V
(ruler of UNITED KINGDOM since 1910-05-06)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()


CANADA CANADIAN Confederation  (Ottawa)

9 Federated or Constituent Mainland Divisions:

ALBERTA Province of ALBERTA  (Edmonton)Local: Province of ALBERTA (en)  (Edmonton)
BRITISH COLUMBIA Province of BRITISH COLUMBIA  (City of Victoria)Local: Province of BRITISH COLUMBIA (en)  (City of Victoria)
MANITOBA Province of MANITOBA  (Winnipeg)Local: Province of MANITOBA (en)  (Winnipeg)
NEW BRUNSWICK Province of NEW BRUNSWICK  (Fredericton)Local: Province of NEW BRUNSWICK (en)  (Fredericton)
NOVA SCOTIA Province of NOVA SCOTIA  (Halifax)Local: Province of NOVA SCOTIA (en)  (Halifax)
ONTARIO Province of ONTARIO  (Toronto)Local: Province of ONTARIO (en)  (Toronto)
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Province of PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND  (Charlottetown)Local: Province of PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (en)  (Charlottetown)
QUEBEC Province of QUEBEC  (Quebec City)Local: Province of QUEBEC (en)  (Quebec City)
SASKATCHEWAN Province of SASKATCHEWAN  (Regina)Local: Province of SASKATCHEWAN (en)  (Regina)

1 Assisted Entity

NORTHERN RUSSIA High Administration of NORTHERN Region : Supreme Administration of Northern Region  (Murmansk) Nikolay Chaikovsky

3 Territories:

INDIANS OF CANADA League of INDIANS OF CANADA  (Ottawa)Local: League of INDIANS OF CANADA (en) + Ligue des INDIENS DU CANADA (fr)  (Ottawa)
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Federal Territory of THE NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES  (Fort Smith + Ottawa)Local: Federal Territory of THE NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES (en) + Territoire fédéral des TERRITOIRES DU NORD-OUEST (fr)  (Fort Smith + Ottawa)
YUKON YUKON Territory  (Dawson City)Local: YUKON Territory (en) + Territoire du YUKON (fr)  (Dawson City)

2 Condominiums:

MACHIAS SEAL ISLAND Territory of MACHIAS SEAL ISLAND  (Machias Seal Island)Local: Territory of MACHIAS SEAL ISLAND (en)  (Machias Seal Island)

Dependent Protectorates:

ALEXANDER CREES Cree Chiefdom of ALEXANDER Band under Treaty Six Agreement  (Alexander)Local: ALEXANDER Band  (Alexander)
ALEXIS ASSINIBOINES Assiniboine Chiefdom of ALEXIS under Treaty Six Agreement  (Alexis)Local: ALEXIS Reservations  (Alexis)
ATHABASKANS Chiefdoms of CREES AND CHIPEWYANS under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Fort McMurray)Local: Chiefdoms of CREES AND CHIPEWYANS  (Fort McMurray)
BATTLEFORD Nations of Treaty Six in BATTLEFORD Region  (Battleford)Local: Chiefdoms of Treaty Six in BATTLEFORD Region (en)  (Battleford)
BIG HEAD CREES Chiefdom of BIG HEAD Indian Reserve  (Pierceland)Local: Chiefdom of BIG HEAD Indian Reserve  (Pierceland)
BIGSTONE CREES Cree Chiefdom of BIGSTONE Band under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Wabasca-Desmarais)Local: BIGSTONE Band  (Wabasca-Desmarais)
BLOOD BLACKFEET Blackfoot Chiefdom of BLOOD Tribe under Treaty Seven Agreement  (Stand Off)Local: Blackfoot Chiefdom of BLOOD Tribe (en) + Kainah : KÁÍNA (bla)  (Stand Off)
BLUE QUILLS Nations of BLUE QUILLS Indian Reserve  (Blue Quills)Local: Nations of BLUE QUILLS Indian Reserve  (Blue Quills)
CROSS LAKE CREES Cree Chiefdom of CROSS LAKE Band  (Cross Lake)Local: CROSS LAKE Band (en) + Pimicikamāk Nīhithawī : NIKIKONAKOS (cr)  (Cross Lake)
ENOCH CREES Cree Chiefdom of ENOCH Indian Band  (Enoch + Stony Plain)Local: Cree Chiefdom of ENOCH Indian Band  (Enoch + Stony Plain)
HORSE LAKE BEAVERS Beaver Chiefdom of HORSE LAKE Band under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Hythe)Local: HORSE LAKE Band  (Hythe)
KAPAWENO KAPAWENO Band under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Grouard Mission)Local: KAPAWE''NO Band  (Grouard Mission)
LITTLE RED RIVER CREES Cree Chiefdom of LITTLE RED RIVER Band under Treaty Eight Agreement  (John D''Or Prairie)Local: LITTLE RED RIVER Band (en) + ATHAPISCOW-WIYINIWAK (cr)  (John D''Or Prairie)
LOUIS BULL Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation Community of LOUIS BULL Tribe under Treaty Seven Agreement  (Louis Bull)Local: LOUIS BULL Tribe  (Louis Bull)
MICHEL Chiefdom of MICHEL Band under Treaty Six Agreement  (Michel Indian Reservation)Local: MICHEL Band  (Michel Indian Reservation)
MONTANA INDIANS MONTANA Indian Reservation under Treaty Six Agreement  (Montana Indian Reservation)Local: MONTANA Indian Reservation (en)  (Montana Indian Reservation)
MONTREAL LAKE CREES Cree Chiefdom of MONTREAL LAKE Indian Reserve  (Montreal Lake)Local: Cree Chiefdom of MONTREAL LAKE Indian Reserve  (Montreal Lake)
NORTHERN PEIGAN BLACKFEET Blackfoot Chiefdom of NORTHERN PEIGAN Band under Treaty Seven Agreement  (Brocket)Local: NORTHERN PEIGAN Band (en) + ApatohsiPiikani : APATOHSI PIIKANI (bla)  (Brocket)
PAUL Cree and Stoney Nakoda Chiefdom of PAUL Band under Treaty Six Agreement  (Wabamun)Local: PAUL Band  (Wabamun)
PRINCE ALBERT NATIONS PRINCE ALBERT Nations under Treaty Six Agreement  (Prince Albert)Local: PRINCE ALBERT Nations (en)  (Prince Albert)
QU''APPELLE Nations of Treaty Four : QU''APPELLE Treaty  (Fort Qu''Apelle)Local: Chiefdoms of Treaty Four : QU''APPELLE Treaty (en)  (Fort Qu''Apelle)
SARCEES SARCEE Indian Band under Treaty Seven Agreement : Tsuu T''ina Nation Indian Reserve  (Tsuu T''ina)Local: SARCEE Indian Band : Tsuu T''ina Nation Indian Reserve (en) + TSU T''INA (srs)  (Tsúùtínà)
SIKSIKA BLACKFEET Chiefdom of SIKSIKA Band under Treaty Seven Agreement  (Siksika)Local: SIKSIKA Band (en) + SIKSIKÁWA (bla)  (Siksika)
SIX NATIONS Iroquois Grand Council of the SIX NATIONS Reserve  (Oshweken)Local: Iroquois Grand Council of the SIX NATIONS Reserve (en) + Hotinonsionni : HODINOSHONE (moh)  (Oshweken)
SOUTHEAST TREATY FOUR SOUTHEAST TREATY FOUR Tribal Council  (Carlyle + Whitewood)Local: SOUTHEAST TREATY FOUR Tribal Council (en)  (Carlyle + Whitewood)
SPIRITWOOD Nations of Treaty Six in SPIRITWOOD Region  (Spiritwood)Local: Chiefdoms of SPIRITWOOD Region (en)  (Spiritwood)
STONEY NAKODAS STONEY NAKODA Bands under Treaty Seven Agreement  (Morley)Local: STONEY NAKODA Bands (en) + Isga iʔabi : ÎYÂRHE NAKODA (sto)  (Morley)
SUCKER CREEK CREES Cree Chiefdom of SUCKER CREEK Band under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Sucker Creek)Local: SUCKER CREEK Band  (Sucker Creek)
THUNDERCHILD CREES Cree Chiefdom of THUNDERCHILD Nation  (Turtleford)Local: Cree Chiefdom of THUNDERCHILD Nation  (Turtleford)
TREATY SEVEN Nations of TREATY SEVEN  (Siksika)Local: Nations of TREATY SEVEN  (Siksika)
TREATY TEN NATIONS TREATY TEN Nations  (Meadow Lake)Local: TREATY TEN Nations  (Meadow Lake)
WHITEFISH LAKE ATIKAMEKS Atikamek Chiefdom of WHITEFISH LAKE under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Utikuma Lake)Local: Atikamek Chiefdom of WHITEFISH LAKE (en) + Atikameksheng ANISHNAWBEK (atj)  (Utikoomak Lake)
WILLIAM TWATT CREES Cree Chiefdom of WILLIAM TWATT Band : Sturgeon Lake Indian Reserve under Treaty Six Agreement  (Sturgeon Lake)Local: WILLIAM TWATT Band : Sturgeon Lake Indian Reserve  (Sturgeon Lake)
YELLOWKNIVES Chiefdom of YELLOWNIVES under Treaty Eight Agreement  (Yellowknife)Local: Chiefdom YELLOWNIVES  (Yellowknife)

11 Organizations (or Groupings) of membership (selective)

BOUNDARY WATERS International Joint Commission : IJC  (Chicago + Sault Sainte Marie)
BRITISH REALMS BRITISH REALMS of the British Empire : British Imperial Federation  (Westminster)
ELECTROTECHNICAL International Electrotechnical Commission : IEC  (London)
NATIONS General Association of NATIONS  (Washington-District of Columbia)
OLYMPIC GAMES International Olympic Committee : IOC  (Lausanne)
PUBLIC HEALTH International Office of Public Health : IOPH  (Paris)
REFRIGERATION International Association of Refrigeration : IAR  (Paris)
TELEGRAPH International Telegraph Union : ITU  (Berne)
UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION Universal Postal Union : UPU  (Berne)
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES International Bureau of Weights and Measures : IBWM  (Sevres)

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

NEWFOUNDLAND British Dominion of NEWFOUNDLAND  (Saint John''s)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2020's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

BENOIT MICMACS Micmac Chiefdom of BENOIT  (Saint George''s Bay)
LABRADOR Dependency of LABRADOR  (Goose Bay)
SVERDRUP ISLANDS Norwegian Claimed SVERDRUP ISLANDS Group  (Ellef Ringnes Island)


   w.ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 Main Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 Printed References

   * Atlas des empires, by Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * Les langues du monde, by Meillet & Cohen, ed. Revue des Études Anciennes (FR). For languages of the world.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

   * and others that are added according to the consulted entity.

 Codes of drawings' authors

Abbott Stephen, SAB (US). Baert Roger, RBA (BE). Berry Bruce, BBE (ZA). Bezh Sergiy, SBE (UA). Darras Philippe-Pierre, PPD (FR). De Vries Hubert, HDV (NL). Dignan James, JDI (NZ). Dixon Jonathan, JDX (AU). Dubois Gaël, GDU (FR). Fischer Jan-Patrick, JPF (DE). Flicher André, AFL (FR). Gross Pascal, PGR (FR). Harden Zachary, ZHA (US). Hardy Alan, AHA (US). Heimer Zeljlko, ZHE (HR). Horváth Zoltán, ZHO (HU). Jovanovic Milan, MJO (RS). Kariyasu Nozomi, NKA (JP). Kelly Ralph, RKE (AU). Kretowicz Chrystian, CKR (PL). Lê Thanh-Tâm, TTL (FR). Loeser Pete, PLO (US). Maddish Christopher, CMA (US). Martins-Tuválkin António, AMT (PT). Martucci Dave, DMA (US). Ollé Casals Jaume, JOC (ES). Paddeu Paolo, PPA (IT). Patke Jens, JPA (AT). Poposki Vanja, VPO (MK). Saber Jason, JSA (UK). Sache Ivan, ISA (FR). Šipek Tomislav, TSI (HR). Thomas Dean, DTH (NZ). Tibbetts Philip, PTI (UK). Touzeau Olivier, OTO (FR). Vagnat Pascal, PVA (FR). Van den Muijzenberg Peter Hans, PHM (NL). Znamierowski Alfred, AZN (PL). Others I may have forgotten. And myself, JMM (FR).

Any suggestion or correction is welcome and can be sent to .

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