RUSSIA  SYRIA  SYRIAN Arab Republic [Russian Military Assistance]
(Moscow a + Saint Petersburg d) - (Damascus) - (Damascus)

Governorate of ALEPPO

Flag or logo since 1980-03-29*
Muhafazat HALAB : مُحافظة حلب (ar)
Emblem or Symbol*

President Vladimir Putin
(ruler of RUSSIA since 2012-05-07)

President Bashar Al-Assad
(ruler of SYRIA since 2000-07-17)
Capitals & administrative places*: Aleppo
Official & national languages: Arabic (ar) .


ALEPPO Governorate of ALEPPO  (Aleppo)

3 Divisions:

ALEPPO ALEPPO District  (Aleppo)Local: Mintaqah HALAB  (Halab)
DEIR HAFIR DEIR HAFIR District  (Deir Hafir)Local: Mintaqah DAYR HAFIR  (Dayr Ḥāfir)
SAFIRA SAFIRA District  (Safira)Local: Mintaqah AS-SAFIRAH : منطقة السفيرة (ar)  (As-Safirah)

* The emblems shown for the subdivisions may in some cases be those of their capital.

Other Independent or Semi-Independent Polities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

FREE SYRIA SYRIAN Interim Government of the Syrian Arab Republic [National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces]  (Istanbul x + Jerablus g + Idlib g)
ISLAMIC STATE Caliphate of the Islamic State : DAESH  (Dubayat)
NORTH AND EAST SYRIA Self-Administration of North and East Syria : SANES  (Kamishli)
PALESTINIAN FRONT Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command : PFLP-GC  (Al-Rihanen + Deir Znun)
SYRIA SYRIAN Arab Republic [Russian Military Assistance]  (Damascus)
SYRIA-IDLIB SYRIAN Salvation Government  (Idlib)
SYRIAN TURKMENS SYRIAN TURKMEN Assembly-in-Exile  (Al-Rai-Cobanbey + Istanbul)

Other Territories or Entities within the 2023's internationally recognized Country boundaries:

ABUKAMAL BASE Iranian Military Base of ABUKAMAL  (Abukamal Base)
AFRIN AFRIN Region [Syro-Kurd Control]  (Tell Rifaat)
ATARIB ATARIB District  (Atarib)
CHAMMAL-SYRIA French Forces of the Chammal Operation in SYRIA  (Ayn Al-Arab-Kobane + Sarrin + Ayn Issa)
DAMASCUS CITY Governorate of DAMASCUS CITY  (Damascus)
DEIR EZ-ZOR Governorate of DEIR EZ-ZOR  (Deir Ez-Zor)
DEIR-EZZOR DEIR EZ-ZOR Region  (Busayrah)
DERA Governorate of DERA  (Dera)
EUPHRATES Syro-Kurd Controlled EUPHRATES Region  (Ayn Al-Arab-Kobane)
FREE IDLIB National Front for Liberation of SYRIA : Liberated Governorate of Idlib  (Ariha)
FREE LEVANT Organization for the Liberation of the Levant : Levant Liberation Committee : HETESH  (Idlib)
GADOT GADOT Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Gadot)
GOLAN GOLAN Sub-District [Israeli Annexion]  (Katzrin)
HAMAH Governorate of HAMAH  (Hamah)
HASEKE Governorate of HASEKE [Enclaves]  (Kamishli-South)
HIMS Islamic Province of HOMS  (Dubayat)
HOMS Governorate of HOMS  (Homs)
HOULA PLAIN Syrian Turkmens of HOULA PLAIN Region : Taldou District  (Taldou)
IDLIB Governorate of IDLIB  (Maarat Al-Numaan)
ISLAM ARMY Army of Islam : JAYSH AL-ISLAM  (Jerablus)
JAZIRA JAZIRA Region [Syro-Kurd Control]  (Kamishli)
KAMISHLI KAMISHLI District [Enclave]  (Kamishli-South)
KAMISHLI BASE KAMISHLI Base  (Kamishli Airport)
KHMEIMIM Russian Leased Military Base of Latakia : KHMEIMIM Air Base  (Khmeimim)
KISWA BASE KISWA Iranian Military Base  (Kiswa Base)
LATAKIA Governorate of LATAKIA  (Latakia)
MANBIJ Syro-Kurd Controlled MANBIJ Region  (Manbij)
NORTH SYRIA NORTH SYRIA Safe Zone : Syrian Turkmen Council  (Azaz)
NORTHEAST SYRIA BASES American Bases in NORTHEAST SYRIA  (Northeast Syrian Bases)
PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS IN SYRIA : UNRWA-United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (Dera Camp)
RAKKA Syro-Kurd Controlled RAKKA Region  (Rakka)
RAKKA Governorate of RAKKA  (Maadan)
RAS AL-AYN RAS AL-AYN District  (Ras Al-Ayn)
SENIR Israeli Occupied SENIR Demilitarized Zone part of Upper Galilee Region  (Senir)
SHADDADI SHADDADI Sub-District : Jazira Region  (Shaddadi)
SHAYRAT Syro-Russian Airbase of AL-SHAYRAT  (Al-Shayrat)
SOUTH MOUNT SIMEON SOUTH MOUNT SIMEON District  ((Aleppo) + Mount Simeon Central)
SULEYMAN SHAH TOMB Enclave of the Territory of the Turk´s Tomb in Manbij District : TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH  (Tomb of Suleyman Shah)
SUWEIDA Governorate of SUWEIDA  (Suweida)
SYRIA-KURDISTAN Syro-Kurd Joint Control Areas of NORTHERN SYRIA  (Rakka)
SYRIAN DESERT Revolutionary Commando Army : SYRIAN DESERT Area  (Al-Tanf)
TABQA TABQA Region [Enclave]  (Tabqah)
TAFAS Enclave of TAFAS [Rebels and Syrian Government Control]  (Tafas)
TARTUS Governorate of TARTUS  (Tartus)
TARTUS BASE Russian Naval Facility of TARTUS  (Tartus Base)
TELL ABYAD TELL ABYAD District  (Tell Abyad)
TIYAS TIYAS Military Airbase  (Tiyas)
UNDOF ZONE United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE  (Quneitra)
Notes: aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox

 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   *, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.


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