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2018-NOV-09

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United Nations Organization : UNO

Flag or logo since 1946-12-07
United Nations Organization : UNO (en) + Organisation des Nations-Unies : ONU (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas : ONU (es) + Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy : OON - Организация Объединённых Наций : OOH (ru) + Lian He-Guo Zuzhi : LHZ - 联合国 组织 (zh) + Al-Manazemeh al-Umam al-Mutahidha : MUM - منظمة الأمم المتحدة لل (ar)
Emblem or Symbol

SG Antonio Guterres (pt)
(since 2017-01-01)
Population:
Area:
Capital:New York City(New York City)
Official languages:()
Official religions:()

Organization:


UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS Organization  (New York City)

10 Organs or similar:

ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council : ECOSOC  (New York City + Geneva)Local: United Nations Economic and Social Council : ECOSOC (en) + Conseil Économique et Social des Nations-Unies : CÉSNU (fr) + Consejo Económico y Social de las Naciones Unidas : CESNU (es) + Ekonomicheskiy i Sotsial''nyy Sovet Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : ESSOON - Экономический и Социальный Совет Организации Объединённых Наций : ЭССООН (ru) + Liánhéguó Jīngjì jí Shèhuì Lǐshì Huì : LJSLH - 联合国经济及社会理事会 (zh) + Al-Majlis al-Aiqtisadi wal-Aijtimaei lil''Umam al-Muttahida : MAAUM - المجلس الاقتصادي والاجتماعي للأمم المتحدة (ar)  (New York City + Genève)
UNFIP United Nations Fund for International Partnerships : UNFIP  (New York City)Local: United Nations Fund for International Partnerships : UNFIP (en) + Fonds des Nations-Unies pour les Partenariats Internationaux : FNUPI (fr)  (New York City)
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund : UNFPA  (New York City)Local: United Nations Population Fund : UNFPA (en) + Fonds des Nations-Unies pour la Population : FNUAP (fr) + Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas : FPNU (es)  (New York City)
UNGA United Nations General Assembly : UNGA  (New York City)Local: United Nations General Assembly : UNGA (en) + Assemblée Générale des Nations-Unies : AGNU (fr) + Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas : AGNU (es) + General''naya Assambleya Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : GAOON - Генеральная Ассамблея Организации Объединённых Наций : ГAOOH (ru) + Liánhéguó Dàhuì : LD - 联合国大会 (zh) + Al-Jameiat al-Eammat lil''Umam al-Muttahida : JEUM - الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة (ar)  (New York City)
UNNY United Nations Headquarters in New York City : UNNY  (New York City)Local: United Nations Headquarters in New York City : UNNY (en) + Siège des Nations-Unies à New York : UNNY (fr) + Sede de las Naciones Unidas en Nueva York : UNNY (es) + Tsentral''nyye Uchrezhdeniya Organizatsii Ob''yedinennykh Natsiy : TSUOON - Центральные Учреждения Организации Объединенных Наций : ЦУOOH (ru) + Liánhéguó Zǒngbù Dàlóu : 联合国总部大楼 (zh) + Maqarr al-''Umam al-Muttahida : مقر الأمم المتحدة (ar)  (New York City)
UNOG United Nations Office at Geneva : UNOG  (Geneva)Local: Office des Nations-Unies à Genève : ONUG (fr) + United Nations Office at Geneva : UNOG (en)  (Genève)
UNON United Nations Office at Nairobi : UNON  (Nairobi)Local: United Nations Office at Nairobi : UNON (en)  (Nairobi)
UNOV United Nations Office at Vienna : UNOV  (Vienna)Local: United Nations Office at Vienna : UNOV (en) + Office des Nations-Unies à Vienne : ONUV (fr) + Oficina de las Naciones Unidas en Viena : ONUV (es) + Upravleniye Organizatsii Ob''yedinennykh Natsiy v Vene : OONV - Управление Организации Объединенных Наций в Вене : УOOH (ru) + Liánhéguó Wéiyěnà Bànshì Chù : LWBC - 联合国维也纳办事处 (zh)  (Wien)
UNS United Nations Secretariat : UNS  (New York City)Local: United Nations Secretariat : UNS (en) + Secrétariat général des Nations-Unies : SGNU (fr) + Secretaría General de Naciones Unidas : SGNU (es) + Sekretariat Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : SOON - Секретариат Организации Объединённых Наций : COOH (ru) + Liánhéguó Mìshū Chù : LMC - 联合国秘书处 (zh) + Al-''Amanat al-Eammat li-Hayyat al-''Umam al-Muttahida : AEHUM - الأمانة العامة لهيئة الأمم المتحدة (ar)  (New York City)
UNSC United Nations Security Council : UNSC  (New York City)Local: United Nations Security Council : UNSC (en) + Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas : CSNU (es) + Conseil de Sécurité des Nations-Unies : CSNU (fr) + Sovet Bezopasnosti Organizatsii Ob''yedinonnykh Natsiy : SOON - Совет Безопасности Организации Объединённых Наций : СБOO (ru) + Liánhéguó Anquán Lǐshì Huì : LATH - 联合国安全理事会 (zh) + UNSC : مجلس أمن الأمم المتحدة (ar)  (New York City)



12 Assisted Entities

AFGHANISTAN Islamic Republic of AFGHANISTAN (Nato-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan)  (Kabul) President Ashraf Ghani
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Republic of BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (European Union Peacekeeping Force in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina)  (Sarajevo) President Mladen Ivanich
BURUNDI Republic of BURUNDI (African Prevention and Protection Mission in Burundi-MAPROBU)  (Bujumbura) President Pierre Nkurunziza
CENTRAL-AFRICA Central African Republic : CAR (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic-UNISMCAR)  (Bangui) President Faustin-Archange Touadera
CONGO-KINSHASA Democratic Republic of THE CONGO (United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo-MONUSCO)  (Kinshasa) President Joseph Kabila
FREE KASHMIR Free State of Jammu and Kashmir : FREE KASHMIR (United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan-UNMOGIP)  (Muzaffarabad) President Sardar Mohammad Yaqoob Khan
HAITI Republic of HAITI (United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti-MINUJUSTH)  (Port Au Prince) President Jovenel Moise
KOSOVO Independent Republic of KOSOVO (UNMIK-European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo)  (Prishtina) President Hashim Thaci
LIBYA Government of National Accord of the State of LIBYA (United Nations Support Mission in Libya-UNSMIL)  (Tripoli) Fayez El-Sarraj
MALI Republic of MALI (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission-MINUSMA)  (Bamako) President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita
SOUTH SUDAN Republic of SOUTH SUDAN (United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan-UNMISS)  (Juba + Ramshiel) President Salva Kiir Mayardit
WESTERN SAHARA Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic : SADR  (Bir Lehlu + Tifariti + Camp Rabouni) President Brahim Ghali



2 Territories in Africa:

UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)Local: United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT (en) + Programme des Nations-Unies pour les Établissements Humains : ONU-HABITAT (fr) + Programa de Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos : ONU-HABITAT (es) + Programma Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Naselennym Punktam : Программа Организация Объединённых Наций по Hаселённым Пунктам : ООН-ХАБИТАТ (ru) + UN-HABITAT : برنامج الأمم المتحدة للمستوطنات البشرية (ar)  (Nairobi)
UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)Local: United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP (en) + Programme des Nations-Unies pour l''Environnement : PNUE (fr) + Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente : PNUMA (es) + Programma Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Okruzhayuschey Srede : POOS - Программа Организация Объединённых Наций по Окружающей Cреде : ПООC (ru) + Lianheguo Huanjing Shu : LHS - 联合国环境署 (zh) + UNEP : برنامج الأمم المتحدة للبيئة (ar)  (Nairobi)

13 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Africa:

ABYEI ABYEI Special Administration Area (United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei-UNISFA)  (Abyei)Local: ABYEI Special Administration Area (en) + Ad-Arah Mintaqah IBAA : إدارة منطقة أبيي (ar)  (Abyei)
BOU LANUAR Restricted Area of BOU LANUAR  (Bou Lanuar)Local: Zone restreinte de BOU LANUAR (fr) + Al-Mintaqat al-Mahzura BU LANUAR : المنطقة المحظورة بو آل نوار (ar) + Área restringida de BOU LANOUAR (es)  (Bou Lanuar)
DARFUR States of DARFUR (African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur-UNAMID)  (El Fasher)Local: Ayat DARFOR :ايات دارفور (ar)  (Al-Fashir)
DUDIANE EL KHIYAM Restricted Area of DUDIANE EL KHIYAM  (Dudiane El Khiyam)Local: Al-Mintaqat al-Mahzura DUDIAN AL-KHIYAM : المنطقة يام المن دودين الخيام (ar) + Área restringida de DUDIANE EL-KHIYAM (es) + Zone restreinte de DUDIANE EL-KHIYAM (fr)  (Dudiane El-Khiyam)
EUTM MALI European Union Training Mission in Mali : EUTM MALI  (Bamako)Local: European Union Training Mission in Mali : EUTM MALI (en) + Mission de formation de l''Union européenne au Mali : EUTM MALI (fr)  (Bamako)
HAMADA HAMADA Restricted Area  (Dakhlet El Khadra)Local: Al-Mintaqat al-Mahzurat HAMMÂDA : المنطقة المحظورة حمادة (ar) + Zone restreinte de la HAMADA (fr) + Área restringida de la HAMADA (es) + HAMMÂDA (tzm)  (Dakhlet El-Khadra)
KAFIA KINGI Disputed Area of KAFIA KINGI District part of Radom Locality in South Darfur  (Kafia Kingi + Hofrat Al-Nahas)Local: Mintaqat KAFIYA KINJI : مينتقات كافيا كنجي (ar) + KAFIA KINGI Area (en)  (Kafiya Kinji + Hofrat En-Nahas)
KASUKU Belgo-Congolese Programme of Military Partnership in KASUKU Camp  (Camp Kasuku)Local: Programme de Partenariat Militaire : PPM (fr)  (Camp Kasuku)
KIDAL KIDAL Region Interim Authorities  (Kidal)Local: Autorités intérimaires de la Région de KIDAL (fr) + KIDAL : ⴾⴸⵍ (tmh)  (Kidal)
LAGOUIRA LAGOUIRA Territory  (Lagouira + Guerguerat)Local: Territorio de LA GÜERA (es) + Iqlim LAGHWIRA : إقليم لاغويرا (ar) + Territoire de LAGOUIRA (fr)  (Lagouira + Guergarat)
MINURSO Western Sahara Restricted Area : United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO  (Umm Dreiga + Auserd)Local: Zone restreinte du Sahara Occidental : Mission des Nations-Unies pour l''Organisation d''un Référendum au Sahara Occidental-MINURSO (fr) + Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental : MINURSO (es) + Baethat al''-Umam al-Muttahidat li-Tanzim Aistifta'' fi al-Sahra'' al-Gharbia : MINURSO - بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية (ar) + United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara : MINURSO (en)  (Oum Dreyga + Awsard)
MOROCCAN SAHARA Southern Provinces of MOROCCAN SAHARA (United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO)  (Laayoune + Dakhla)Local: Wilayat AS-ṢAḥRĀ'' AL-MAGHRIBIYYA : محافظات الصحراء المغربية (ar)  (Laâyoune + Ad-Dakhla)
TAOUDENIT Aqim and Arab Movement of Azawad Controlled TAOUDENIT Region  (Taoudenit)Local: Mouvement Arabe de l''Azawad : MAA - Région de TAOUDENNI (fr) + Al-Harakat al-Arabiat al-''Azwadia : HAA - الحركة العربية الأزوادية (ar)  (Taoudenni)

8 Territories in Americas:

IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development : IBRD (en) + Banque Internationale de Reconstruction et de Développement : BIRD (fr) + Banco Internacional de Reconstrucción y Desarrollo : BIRD (es) + Mezhdunarodnyy Bank Rekonstruktsii i Razvitiya : Международный Банк Реконструкции и Развития : МБРР (ru) + Guoji Fuxing he Kaifa Yinhang : SHIJIE YINHANG - 国际复兴和开发银行 : 世界银行 (zh) + Al-Bank AL-PENNEKATA : البنك الدولي للإنشاء والتعمير (ar)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO Specialized Agency  (Montreal)Local: International Civil Aviation Organization : ICAO (en) + Organisation de l''Aviation Civile Internationale : OACI (fr) + المنظمة الدولية للطيران المدني : ICAO (ar) + Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional : OACI (es) + Mezhdunarodnaya Organizatsiya Grazhdanskoy Aviatsii : IKAO - Международная организация гражданской авиации : ИКАО (ru) + Guoji Min Hang Zuzhi : GMHZ - 国际民航组织 (zh)  (Montréal)
IMF International Monetary Fund : IMF Specialized Agency  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: International Monetary Fund : IMF (en) + Fonds Monétaire International : FMI (fr) + Fondo Monetario Internacional : FMI (es)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
MOON Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : MOON TREATY  (New York City)Local: Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : MOON TREATY (en) + Acuerdo que Gobierna las Actividades de los Estados en la Luna y Otros Cuerpos Celestiales : TRATADO DE LA LUNA (es) + Accord régissant les activités des États sur la Lune et les autres corps célestes : TRAITÉ SUR LA LUNE (fr) + Soglasheniye o deyatel''nosti gosudarstv na Lune i drugikh nebesnykh telakh : LUNA DOGOVOR - Соглашение о деятельности государств на Луне и других небесных телах : ЛУНА ДОГОВОР (ru) + YUÈQIÚ TIÁOYUĒ : 月球条约 (zh) + HILAL - اتفاقية تنظيم نشاط الدول على القمر أو الأجسام الفضائية الأخرى : إتفاقية القمر (ar)  (New York City)
PAHO Pan-American Health Organization : PAHO  (Washington-District of Columbia)Local: Pan-American Health Organization : PAHO (en) + Organización Panamericana de la Salud : OPS (es) + Organisation Panaméricaine de la Santé : OPS (fr)  (Washington-District of Columbia)
UNDP United Nations Development Programme : UNDP Specialized Agency  (New York City)Local: United Nations Development Programme : UNDP (en) + Programme des Nations-Unies pour le Développement : PNUD (fr) + Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo : PNUD (es)  (New York City)
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC  (New York City)Local: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : UNFCCC (en) + Convention-Cadre des Nations-Unies sur les Changements Climatiques : CCNUCC (fr) + Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático : CMNUCC (es) + Ramochnaya Konventsiya Organizatsiya Obedinennyh Natsy ob i Zmenenii Klimata : RKOONZK - Рамочная Kонвенция Организация Объединенных Наций об Изменении Kлимата : RKOOHИK (ru) + Lian-He-Guo Qi-Hou-Bian-Hua Kuang-Jia Gong-Yue : 联合国气候变化框架公约 (zh) + اتفاقية الأمم المتحدة المبدئية بشأن التغير المناخي (ar)  (New York City)
UNICEF United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF Specialized Agency  (New York City)Local: United Nations International Children''s Emergency Fund : UNICEF (en) + Fonds des Nations-Unies pour l''Enfance : UNICEF (fr) + Fondo de Naciones Unidas para la Infancia : UNICEF (es) + Detskiy Fond Organizatsii Obedinennyh Natsiy : UNICEF - Детский фонд Организации Объединённых Наций : ЮНИСЕ (ru) + Lien-He-Guo Er-Tong Ji-Jin-Hui : 联合国儿童基金会 (zh) + صندوق الأمم المتحدة للطفولة (ar)  (New York City)

1 Condominium, co-administered or disputed territory in Americas:

FARC United Nations monitored Transitional Areas of the Normalization for the Alternative Revolutionary Force of the Commonalty : FARC  (Yari)Local: Zonas de transición de la Fuerza Alternativa Revolucionaria del Común : FARC (es)  (Yari)

1 Territory in Asia:

UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA  (Gaza + Amman)Local: UNRWA : وكالة الأمم المتحدة لإغاثة وتشغيل اللاجئين الفلسطينيين (ar) + United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East : UNRWA (en) + Office de Secours et de Travaux des Nations-Unies pour les Réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient : UNRWA (fr)  (Gazzah + Amman)

11 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Asia:

CAMP LIBERTY United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq : UNAMI  (Camp Liberty)Local: United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq : UNAMI (en)  (Camp Hurriya)
CYPRUS BUFFER ZONE UNFICYP-United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus : United Nations Monitored BUFFER ZONE on Attila Line  (Nicosia-Blue Beret Camp)Local: UNFICYP-United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus : United Nations Monitored BUFFER ZONE (en) + UNFICYP-Force des Nations-Unies chargée du maintien de la paix à Chypre : ZONE TAMPON des Nations-Unies (fr) + Paremvallómeni̱ Grammí̱ tou Organismós I̱no̱méno̱n Ethnó̱n sti̱n Kýpro : NEKRI ZONI - Παρεμβαλλόμενη γραμμή του Οργανισμός Ηνωμένων Εθνών στην Κύπρο : NEKPH ZῼNH (el) + Kıbrıs''taki Birleşmiş Milletler Barış Gücü : ATTILA HATTI (tr)  (Nicosia-Blue Beret Camp)
GILGIT-BALTISTAN Autonomous Province of GILGIT-BALTISTAN  (Gilgit)Local: Autonomous Province of GILGIT-BALTISTAN (en) + GILGIT-BALTISTAN : گلگت - بلتستان (ur) + GILGIT-BALTISTAN : གིལྒིཏ་བལྟིསྟན : گلگت بلتستان (bft)  (Gilgit)
HELMAND VALLEY American Bases in HELMAND RIVER VALLEY  (Camp Dyer)Local: American Bases in HELMAND RIVER VALLEY (en)  (Camp Dyer)
JAMMU AND KASHMIR State of JAMMU AND KASHMIR (United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan-UNMOGIP at Srinagar)  (Jammu + Srinagar)Local: State of JAMMU AND KASHMIR (en) + JAMMU O-KASHMIR : مقبوضہ کشمیر (ur) + JAMMU O KAHSMIR : جۄم تٕ کٔشېر (ks)  (Jammu + Srinagar)
KABUL-INTERNATIONAL Kabul International Airport Mutlinational Force : KAIA  (Isaf Headquarters in Kabul)Local: Kabul International Airport Mutlinational Force : KAIA (en)  (Isaf Headquarters in Kabul)
KAREN REFUGEES CAMPS KAREN REFUGEES CAMPS in Thailand  (Maela)Local: KAREN REFUGEES CAMPS in Thailand (en) + KARAIN Dukhkasaihcahkaann : ကရင်ဒုက္ခသည်စခန်း (my) + Kh̀āy p̄hū̂ lī̂ p̣hạy CHĀW KAH̄ERĪ̀YNG : ค่ายผู้ลี้ภัยชาวกะเหรี่ยง (th)  (Mae La)
KOREAN DEMILITARIZED ZONE Buffer Zone of KOREAN DEMILITARIZED ZONE (United Nations Command Military Armistice Commission-UNCMC)  (Panmunjom)Local: United Nations Command Military Armistice Commission : KOREAN DEMILITARIZED ZONE (en) + Hanbando Bimujangjidae : HANBANDOBIMUJANGJIDAE - 한반도 비무장지대 : 韓半島非武裝地帶 (ko)  (Panmunjeom)
SOUTHERN LEBANON UNIFIL-United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon : Hezbollah Controlled SOUTHERN LEBANON  (Naqura + Bint Jbeil)Local: Force Intérimaire des Nations-Unies au Liban : FINUL (fr) + United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon : UNIFIL (en) + UNIFIL : قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان (ar)  (Naqoura + Bint Jubayl)
UNDOF ZONE United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE  (Quneitra)Local: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force : UNDOF ZONE (en) + Force des Nations-Unies chargée d’Observer le Désengagement : ZONE FNUOD (fr) + UNDOF : أندوف (ar)  (Al-Qunaytirah'')
UNTSO United Nations Truce Supervision Organization : UNTSO  (Government House of Jerusalem)Local: United Nations Truce Supervision Organization : UNTSO (en) + Organisme des Nations-Unies chargé de la Surveillance de la Trêve : ONUST (fr) + UNTSO : ארגון הפיקוח על הפסקת אש של האומות המאוחדות (he) + ONUST : هيئة الأمم المتحدة لمراقبة (ar)  (Government House of Jerusalem)

22 Territories in Europe:

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO Specialized Agency  (Rome)Local: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations : FAO (en) + Organisation des Nations-Unies pour l''Alimentation et l''Agriculture : ONUAA (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura : FAO (es) + Prodovolstvennaya i Selskohozyaystvennaya Organizatsiya Obedinennyh Natsy : FAO - Продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация Объединенных Наций : ФАО (ru) + Lianheguo Liangshi-ji Nongye Zuzhi : 联合国粮食及农业组织 (zh) + FAO : منظمة الأغذية والزراعة للأمم المتحدة (ar)  (Roma)
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA Specialized Agency  (Vienna)Local: International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA (en) + Agence Internationale de l''Énergie Atomique : AIÉA (fr) + Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica : OIEA (es) + Mezhdunarodnoe Agentstvo po Atomnoy Energii : MAGATE - Международное агентство по атомной энергии : МАГАТЭ (ru) + Guoji Yuanzi-Neng Jigou : GYNJ - 国际原子能机构 (zh) + IAEA : الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية (ar)  (Wien)
ICJ International Court of Justice : ICJ  (The Hague)Local: International Court of Justice : ICJ (en) + Cour Internationale de Justice : CIJ (fr)  (''s-Gravenhage)
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD Specialized Agency  (Rome)Local: International Fund for Agricultural Development : IFAD (en) + Fondo Internazionale per lo Sviluppo Agricolo : FISA (it)  (Roma)
ILO International Labour Organization : ILO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: International Labour Organization : ILO (en) + Organisation Internationale du Travail : OIT (fr) + Organización Internacional del Trabajo : OIT (es)  (Genève)
IMO International Maritime Organization : IMO Specialized Agency  (London)Local: International Maritime Organization : IMO (en) + Organisation Maritime Internationale : OMI (fr)  (London)
IOM International Organization for Migration : IOM Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: International Organization for Migration : IOM (en) + Organisation Internationale pour les Migrations : OIM (fr) + Organización Internacional para las Migraciones : OIM (es)  (Genève)
ITU International Telecommunication Union : ITU Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: International Telecommunication Union : ITU (en) + Union Internationale des Télécommunications : UIT (fr) + Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones: UIT (es) + Mezhdunarodnyy Soyuz Elektrosvyazi : MSE - Международный Союз Электросвязи : МСЭ (ru) + Guoji Dianxin Lianmeng : GDL - 国际电信联盟 (zh) + ITU : الاتحاد الدولي للاتصالات (ar)  (Genève)
OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : OHCHR (en) + Office du Haut-Commissariat des Nations-Unies aux Droits de l''Homme : HCDH (fr) + Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos : OACDH (es) + Upravlenie Verhovnogo Komissara Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Pravam Cheloveka : UVKPCh - Управление Верховного комиссара Организации Объединённых Наций по правам человека : УBKПЧ (ru) + Lianheguo Renquan Shiwu Gaojizhuanyuan Banshichu : RSGB - 联合国人权事务高级专员办事处 (zh) + UNHCHR : المفوضية السامية للأمم المتحدة لحقوق الإنسان (ar)  (Genève)
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD  (Geneva)Local: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development : UNCTAD (en) + Conférence des Nations-Unies sur le Commerce Et le Développement : CNUCED (fr)  (Genève)
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO Specialized Agency  (Paris)Local: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : UNESCO (en) + Organisation des Nations-Unies pour l''Éducation la Science et la Culture : UNESCO (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación la Ciencia y la Cultura : UNESCO (es) + Organizatsiya Obedinennyh Natsiy po Voprosam ObrazovanIa Nauki i Kultury : UNESKO - Организация Объединённых Наций по вопросам образования науки и культуры : ЮНЕСКО (ru) + Lianheguo Jiayu Kexue-Ji Wenhua Zuzhi : UNESCO - 联合国教育、科学及文化组织'' (zh) + UNESCO : منظمة الأمم المتحدة للتربية والعلم والثقافة (ar)  (Paris)
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR Agency  (Geneva)Local: United Nations High Commission for Refugees : UNHCR (en) + Haut-Commissariat des Nations-Unies pour les Réfugiés : HCR (fr) + Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados : ACNUR (es) + Upravlenie Verhovnogo Komissara Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Delam Bezhentsev : UVKB - Управление Верховного комиссара Организации Объединённых Наций по делам беженцев : УВКБ (ru) + Lianheguo Nanmin Shiwu Gaojizhuanyuan Banshichu : NSGB - 联合国难民事务高级专员办事处 (zh) + UNHCR : المفوضية العليا للأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين (ar)  (Genève)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO Specialized Agency  (Vienna)Local: United Nations Industrial Development Organization : UNIDO (es) + Organisation des Nations-Unies pour le Développement Industriel : ONUDI (fr) + Organización de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo Industrial : ONUDI (es)  (Wien)
UNODA Conference on Disarmament : United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA  (Geneva)Local: United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs : UNODA (en) + Bureau des Affaires du Désarmement des Nations-Unies : BADNU (fr) + Oficina de las Naciones Unidas para Asuntos de Desarme : ONUAD (es) + Upravlenie Organizatsii Obedinennyh Natsy po Boprosam Razoruzheniya : UBR - Управление Организации Объединенных Наций по Bопросам Pазоружения : УВР (ru) + Lienheguo Caijun-Shiwu Bangongshi : CAIJUNBU - 联合国裁军事务办公室:裁军部 (zh) + UNODA : مكتب الأمم المتحدة لشؤون نزع السلاح (ar)  (Genève)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC Agency  (Vienna)Local: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime : UNODC (en) + Office des Nations-Unies contre la Drogue et le Crime : ONUDC (fr) + Upravlenie Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Narkotikam i Prestupnosti : UNODK - Управление Организация Объединённых Наций по наркотикам и преступности : ЮНОДК (ru)  (Wien)
UNOOSA Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty  (Vienna)Local: Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies : OUTER SPACE Treaty (en) + Tratado sobre los principios que deben regir las actividades de los Estados en la exploración y utilización del espacio ultraterrestre incluso la Luna y otros cuerpos celestes : TRATADO SOBRE EL ESPACIO ULTRATERRESTRE (es) + Traité sur les principes régissant les activités des États en matière d''exploration et d''utilisation de l''espace extra-atmosphérique y compris la Lune et les autres corps célestes : TRAITÉ DE L''ESPACE (fr) + Dogovor o printsipakh deyatel''nosti gosudarstv po issledovaniyu i ispol''zovaniyu kosmicheskogo prostranstva vklyuchaya Lunu i drugiye nebesnyye tela : DOGOVOR O KOSMOSE - Договор о принципах деятельности государств по исследованию и использованию космического пространства включая Луну и другие небесные тела : ДОГОВОР О КОСМОСЕ (ru) + Guānyú gèguó tànsuǒ hé lìyòng bāokuò yuèqiú hé qítā tiāntǐ de wàicéng kōngjiān huódòng suǒ yīng zūnshǒu yuánzé de tiáoyuē : WÀI KŌNG TIÁOYUĒ - 关于各国探索和利用包括月球和其他天体的外层空间活动所应遵守原则的条约 : 外空条约 (zh)  (Wien)
UNWTO World Tourism Organization : UNWTO Specialized Agency  (Madrid)Local: World Tourism Organization : UNWTO (en) + Organisation Mondiale du Tourisme : OMT (fr) + Organización Mundial del Turismo : OMT (es) + Vsemirnaya Turistskaya Organizatsiya : UNVTO - Всемирная Туристская Организация : ЮНВТО (ru) + UNWTO : منظمة السياحة العالمية (ar)  (Madrid)
UPU Universal Postal Union : UPU Specialized Agency  (Berne)Local: Union Postale Universelle : UPU (fr) + Universal Postal Union : UPU (en)  (Bern)
WFP World Food Programme : WFP  (Rome)Local: Programme Alimentaire Mondial : PAM (fr) + World Food Programme : WFP (en) + Programa Mundial de Alimentos : PMA (es) + Vsemirnaya Prodovolstvennaya Programma : VPP - Всемирная Продовольственная Программа : ВПП (ru) + Shijie Liangshi Jihua Shu : SLJ - 世界糧食計劃署 (zh) + WFP : برنامج الأغذية العالمي (ar) + Programma Alimentare Mondiale : PAM (it)  (Roma)
WHO World Health Organization : WHO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: World Health Organization : WHO (en) + Organización Mundial de la Salud : OMS (es) + Organisation Mondiale de la Santé : OMS (fr) + Vsemirnaya Organizatsiya Zdravoohraneniya : VOZ - Всемирная Oрганизация Здравоохранения : BOЗ (ru) + Shijie Weisheng Zuzhi : SWZ - 世界卫生组织 (zh) + منظمة الصحة العالمية (ar)  (Genève)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: Organisation Mondiale de la Propriété Intellectuelle : OMPI (fr) + World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO (en) + Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual : OMPI (es) + Vsemirnaya Organizatsiya Intellektualnoy Sobstvennosti : VOIS - Всемирная Oрганизация Интеллектуальной Cобственности : ВОИС (ru) + Shijie Zhishi Chanquan Zuzhi : WIPO - 世界知识产权组织 (zh) + WIPO : المنظمة العالمية للملكية الفكرية (ar)  (Genève)
WMO World Meteorological Organization : WMO Specialized Agency  (Geneva)Local: World Meteorological Organization : WMO (en) + Organisation Météorologique Mondiale : OMM (fr) + Organización Meteorológica Mundial : OMM (es) + Vsemirnaya Meteorologicheskaya Organizatsiya : VMO - Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация : BMO (ru) + Shijie Qixiang Zuzhi : SQZ - 世界气象组织 (zh) + WMO : المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد (ar)  (Genève)

2 Condominiums, co-administered or disputed territories in Europe:

GROUND SAFETY ZONE Kosovo Demilitarized Zone : Kosovo Force GROUND SAFETY ZONE  (Camp Bondsteel + Dobrosin)Local: Kosovo Force : KFOR (en) + Snage na Kosovu : KFOR - Снаге на Косову : КФОР (sr)  (Camp Bondsteel + Dobrosin)
KOSOVO AND METOCHIA Assembly of the Community of Serbian Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of KOSOVO AND METOCHIA (UNMIK-European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo)  (Kosovska Mitrovitsa)Local: Skupština Zajednice Srpskih Opština Autonomne Pokrajine KOSOVO I METOHIJA : Скупштина Заједнице Cрпских Oпштина Аутономне Покрајине КОСОВО И МЕТОХИJA (sr)  (Kosovska Mitrovica)




193 Members (excluding the associate or suspended members but including the countries represented on their behalf)   [The rulers are not necessarily the representatives in the organization. ] :

ANDORRA (Andorra The Old) Coprince Joan Enric Vives Sicilia
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (Abu Dhabi) President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
AFGHANISTAN (Kabul) President Ashraf Ghani
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA (Saint John''s) Queen Elizabeth II
ALBANIA (Tirana) President Ilir Meta
ARMENIA (Erevan) President Armen Sarkisyan
ANGOLA (Luanda) President Joao Manuel Goncalves Lourenco
ARGENTINA (Buenos Aires) President Mauricio Macri
AUSTRIA (Vienna) President Alexander Van der Bellen
AUSTRALIA (Canberra) Queen Elizabeth II
AZERBAIJAN (Baku) President Iham Aliyev
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (Sarajevo) President Mladen Ivanich
BARBADOS (Bridgetown) Queen Elizabeth II
BENGLADESH (Dhaka) President Abdul Hamid
BELGIUM (Brussels) King Philippe
BURKINA FASO (Wagadugu) President Roch Marc Christian Kabore
BULGARIA (Sofia) President Rumen Radev
BAHRAIN (Manamah) King Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifah
BURUNDI (Bujumbura) President Pierre Nkurunziza
BENIN (Porto Novo + Cotonou) President Patrice Talon
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM (Bandar Seri Begawan) Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
BOLIVIA (Sucre + La Paz) President Evo Morales
BRAZIL (Brasilia) President Michel Temer
BAHAMAS (Nassau) Queen Elizabeth II
BHUTAN (Thimphu) King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk
BOTSWANA (Gaborone) President Mokgweetsi Masisi
BELARUS (Minsk) President Alexander Lukashenko
BELIZE (Belmopan) Queen Elizabeth II
CANADA (Ottawa) Queen Elizabeth II
CONGO-KINSHASA (Kinshasa) President Joseph Kabila
CENTRAL-AFRICA (Bangui) President Faustin-Archange Touadera
CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE (Brazzaville) President Denis Sassou-Nguesso
SWITZERLAND (Berne + Lausanne) President Alain Berset
IVORY COAST (Yamoussoukro) President Alassane Ouattara
CHILE (Santiago of Chile + Valparaiso) President Sebastian Pinera
CAMEROON (Yaounde) President Paul Biya
CHINA (Beijing) Xi Jinping
COLOMBIA (Bogota) President Ivan Duque Marquez
COSTA RICA (San Jose) President Carlos Alvarado Quesada
CUBA (Havana) Raul Castro
CAPE VERDE (Praia) President Jorge Carlos Fonseca
CYPRUS (Nicosia) President Nicos Anastasiades
CZECHIA (Prague + Brno) President Milos Zeman
GERMANY (Berlin + Bonn + Karlsruhe) Bundespresident Frank-Walter Steinmeier
DJIBOUTI (Djibouti) President Ismail Omar Guelleh
DOMINICA (Roseau) President Charles Savarin
DOMINICAN (Santo Domingo de Guzman) President Danilo Medina
DENMARK (Copenhagen) Queen Margaret II
ALGERIA (Algiers) President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
ECUADOR (Quito) President Lenin Moreno
ESTONIA (Tallinn + Tartu) President Kersti Kaljulaid
EGYPT (Cairo) President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
ERITREA (Asmara) President Isaias Afewerki
SPAIN (Madrid) King Philip VI
ETHIOPIA (Addis Ababa) President Sahle-Work Zewde
FINLAND (Helsinki + Kultaranta) President Sauli Niinisto
FIJI (Suva) President George Konrote
MICRONESIA (Palikir) President Peter Christian
FRANCE (Paris) President Emmanuel Macron
GABON (Libreville) President Ali Ben Bongo Ondimba
GRENADA (Saint George''s) Queen Elizabeth II
GEORGIA (Tbilisi + Kutaisi) President Giorgi Margvelashvili
GHANA (Accra) President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo
GAMBIA (Banjul) President Adama Barrow
GUINEA (Conakry) President Alpha Conde
EQUATORIAL GUINEA (Oyala + Malabo) President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
GREECE (Athens) President Prokopis Pavlopoulos
GUATEMALA (Guatemala City) President Jimmy Morales Cabrera
GUINEA-BISSAU (Bissau) President Jose Mario Vaz
GUYANA (Georgetown) President David Arthur Granger
HONDURAS (Tegucigalpa) President Juan Orlando Hernandez
CROATIA (Zagreb) President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovich
HAITI (Port Au Prince) President Jovenel Moise
HUNGARY (Budapest) President Janos Ader
INDONESIA (Jakarta) President Joko Widodo
IRELAND (Dublin) President Michael Daniel Higgins
ISRAEL (Jerusalem + Tel Aviv-Jaffa) President Reuven Rivlin
INDIA (New Delhi) President Ram Nath Kovind
IRAQ (Baghdad) President Barham Salih
IRAN (Tehran) Leader Ayatollah Sayyed Mohammed Ali Khamenei
ICELAND (Reykjavik) President Gudhni Thorlacius Johannesson
ITALY (Rome) President Sergio Mattarella
JAMAICA (Kingston) Queen Elizabeth II
JORDAN (Amman) King Abdullah II
JAPAN (Tokyo) Emperor Akihito
KENYA (Nairobi) President Uhuru Kenyatta
KYRGYZSTAN (Bishkek) President Sooronbay Jeenbekov
CAMBODIA (Phnom Penh) King Norodom Sihamoni
KIRIBATI (South Tarawa) President Taneti Maamau
COMOROS (Moroni) President Azali Assoumani
SAINT CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS (Basseterre) Queen Elizabeth II
NORTH KOREA (Pyongyang) Kim Jong-Un
SOUTH KOREA (Seoul) President Moon Jae-In
KUWAIT (Kuwait City) Emir Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah
KAZAKHSTAN (Astana) President Nursultan Nazarbayev
LAOS (Vientiane) Boungnang Vorachith
LEBANON (Beirut) President Michel Aoun
SAINT LUCIA (Castries) Queen Elizabeth II
LIECHTENSTEIN (Vaduz) Prince Hans-Adam II
SRI LANKA (Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte + Colombo) President Maithripala Sirisena
LIBERIA (Monrovia) President George Weah
LESOTHO (Maseru) King Letsie III
LITHUANIA (Vilnius) President Dalia Grybauskaite
LUXEMBOURG (Luxembourg) Grand Duke Henri
LATVIA (Riga) President Raimonds Vejonis
LIBYA (Tripoli) Fayez El-Sarraj
MOROCCO (Rabat) King Muhammad VI
MONACO (Monaco) Prince Albert II
MOLDOVA (Chisinau) President Igor Dodon
MONTENEGRO (Podgoritsa + Cetinje) President Milo Djukanovich
MADAGASCAR (Tananarive) Rivo Rakotovao
MARSHALL ISLANDS (Dalap-Uliga-Darrit on Majuro) President Hilda Heine
NORTH MACEDONIA (Skopje) President Gjorge Ivanov
MALI (Bamako) President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita
MYANMAR (Naypyidaw + Rangoon) President Win Myint
MONGOLIA (Ulan-Bator) President Khaltmaa Battulga
MAURITANIA (Nouakchott) President Mohamed Ould Abdelaziz
MALTA (Valletta) President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca
MAURITIUS (Port Louis) Barlen Vyapoory
MALDIVES (Male) President Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom
MALAWI (Lilongwe) President Peter Mutharika
MEXICO (Mexico City) President Enrique Pena Nieto
MALAYSIA (Kuala Lumpur + Putrajaya) Sultan Muhammad V Faris Petra
MOZAMBIQUE (Maputo) President Filipe Nyusi
NAMIBIA (Windhoek) President Hage Geingob
NIGER (Niamey) President Mahamadou Issoufou
NIGERIA (Abuja) President Muhammadu Buhari
NICARAGUA (Managua) President Daniel Ortega
NETHERLANDS (Amsterdam + The Hague) King Willem-Alexander
NORWAY (Oslo) King Harald V
NEPAL (Kathmandu) President Bidhya Devi Bhandari
NAURU (Yaren + Aiwo) President Baron Waqa
NEW ZEALAND (Wellington) Queen Elizabeth II
OMAN (Muscat) Sultan Qaboos bin Said
PANAMA (Panama City) President Juan Carlos Varela
PERU (Lima) President Martin Vizcarra
PAPUA NEW GUINEA (Port Moresby) Queen Elizabeth II
PHILIPPINES (Manila) President Rodrigo Duterte
PAKISTAN (Islamabad) President Arif Alvi
POLAND (Warsaw) President Andrzej Duda
PORTUGAL (Lisbon) President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
PALAU (Ngerulmud in Melekeok) President Tommy Remengesau Jr
PARAGUAY (Assumption) President Mario Abdo Benitez
QATAR (Doha) Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
ROMANIA (Bucharest) President Klaus Iohannis
SERBIA (Belgrade) President Alexandar Vuchich
RUSSIA (Moscow) President Vladimir Putin
RWANDA (Kigali) President Paul Kagame
SAUDI ARABIA (Riyadh) King Salman
SOLOMON ISLANDS (Honiara) Queen Elizabeth II
SEYCHELLES (Port Victoria) President Danny Faure
SUDAN (Khartoum) President Omar Al-Bashir
SWEDEN (Stockholm) King Charles XVI Gustav
SINGAPORE (Singapore) President Halimah Yacob
SLOVENIA (Ljubljana) President Borut Pahor
SLOVAKIA (Bratislava) President Andrej Kiska
SIERRA LEONE (Freetown) President Julius Maada Wonie Bio
SAN MARINO (San Marino) Captains-Regent
SENEGAL (Dakar) President Macky Sall
SOMALIA (Mogadishu-Villa Somalia) President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed Farmajo
SURINAM (Paramaribo) President Desi Bouterse
SOUTH SUDAN (Juba + Ramshiel) President Salva Kiir Mayardit
SAINT THOMAS AND PRINCE (Saint Thomas) President Evaristo Carvalho
SALVADOR (San Salvador) President Salvador Sanchez Ceren
SYRIA (Damascus) President Bashar Al-Assad
SWATINI (Mbabane + Lobamba) King Mswati III
CHAD (Ndjamena) President Idriss Deby
TOGO (Lome) President Faure Gnassingbe
THAILAND (Bangkok) King Rama X Vajiralongkorn
TAJIKISTAN (Dushanbe) President Emomali Rakhmonov
EAST TIMOR (Dilly) President Francisco Guterres
TURKMENISTAN (Ashgabat) President Arkadag Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov
TUNISIA (Tunis) President Mohamed Beji Caid Essebsi
TONGA (Nukualofa) King Ahoeitu Tupou VI
TURKEY (Ankara) President Recep Tayyip Erdogan
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (Port-of-Spain) President Paula-Mae Weeke
TUVALU (Vaiaku on Fongafale in Funafuti) Queen Elizabeth II
TANZANIA (Dar Es Salaam + Dodoma) President John Magufuli
UKRAINE (Kiev) President Petro Poroshenko
UGANDA (Kampala) President Yoweri Museveni
UNITED KINGDOM (London + Westminster) Queen Elizabeth II
AMERICA (Washington-District of Columbia) President Donald Trump
URUGUAY (Montevideo) President Tabare Vazquez
UZBEKISTAN (Tashkent) Shavkat Mirziyayev
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES (Kingstown) Queen Elizabeth II
VENEZUELA (Caracas) President Nicolas Maduro
VIETNAM (Hanoi) Nguyen Phu Trong
VANUATU (Port Vila) President Tallis Obed Moses
SAMOA (Apia) Vaaletoa Sualauvi II
YEMEN (Litlle Aden + Riyadh) President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
SOUTH AFRICA (Pretoria + Cape Town + Bloemfontein) President Cyril Ramaphosa
ZAMBIA (Lusaka) President Edgar Lungu
ZIMBABWE (Harare) President Emmerson Mnangagwa



Ѻ Ѻ Ѻ
   
Notes:


   1900.ethnia.org is an essay which goal is to try to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organizations that have existed during the 20th century. The first version of the website dates back from 1996 and had been put online under ethnia.org in 1999. The current version is from 2009 and now allows to search for an entity for any day of the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [rose: country completed at level 2 (province, county, ...), red: level 3 (district, ...), white: level 1 only (region, federated State, ...)]

   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox




 Base sources:

   * World Statesmen, thanks to Ben Cahoon (US): historical polities and their rulers.
   * Statoids, thanks to Gwillim Law (US): historical administrative divisions.
   * Flags Of The World, thanks to Rob Raeside (CA): flags. (the link given is from my mirror of this site)
   * Heraldry of the World, maintained by Ralf Hartemink (NL): coat of arms.
   * Rulers.org, thanks to Benjamin Schemmel (DE): photos of rulers.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US): historical currencies.
   * World History at KMLA, maintained by Alexander Ganse (DE): historical maps.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US): for Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, maintained by Jacques Leclerc (CA): linguistical politics by country.
   * Population Statistics, maintained by Jan Lahmeyer (NL): historical evolution of the population.
   * Wikipedia, for general data, maps, pictures ...
   * Google Books, online library.
   * The other sources are given specifically according to the consulted entity, at bottom page.

   Some of the flags and coat of arms of the website are drawn by myself.

 Specific sources:






Any suggestion, correction, addition or collaboration is welcome and can be sent to .


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LAST MODIFICATIONS : 2018-NOV-14.