1992-FEB-26



 ° SOVEREIGN & SEMI-INDEPENDENT POLITIES  ° PROTECTORATES & MANDATES  ° FEDERATED & REGIONALIZED POLITIES
 ° TERRITORIES & DEPENDENCIES  ° REBEL ENTITIES & GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE  ° ORGANISATIONS & GROUPINGS


Independent & Semi-Independent Polities


AFARS
De facto IndependentRebellion
AFAR Republic [Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy : FRUD]  (Assa Gaila)République des AFARS : Front pour la Restauration de l´Unité et de la Démocratie : FRUD (fr) + Djoumouhirya AFAR : الجبهة من أجل استعادة الوحدة والديمقراطية (ar) + QAFAR Jumhuri : عفار (aa)  (´Assa Gaila) President Mohamed Adoyata Youssouf
ALGERIA
UNO Member
People´s Democratic Algerian Republic : PDAR [High State Committee]  (Algiers a + El Biar d + El Mouradia r)Al-Djoumhouriyya AL-DJAZ´IRIYYA ad-Dīmouqrāţiyya ash-Sha´biyya : لجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (ar)  (Al-Djazaïr + Al-Biar + Al-Muradia) Mohamed Boudiaf
ANGOLA
UNO Member
People´s Republic of ANGOLA [United Nations Angola Verification Mission-UNAVEM II]  (Luanda)República Popular de ANGOLA (pt)  (Luanda) President Jose Eduardo dos Santos
ANGOLA-UNITA
De facto IndependentRebellion
Democratic People´s Republic of ANGOLA [Union for the Total Independence of Angola : UNITA]  (Jamba)República Democrática Popular de Angola : União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola : UNITA (pt)  (Jamba) President Jonas Savimbi
BENIN
UNO Member
Republic of BENIN  (Porto Novo a + Cotonou lnq)République du BÉNIN (fr) + BENIN Dukoa (fon )n + Orílɛ̀-èdè Olómìnira ilɛ̀ BENIN (yo )n + Orílɛ̀-èdè Olómìnira ilɛ̀ BENIN (yor )n + Beninto : BENẹ (guw )n + BENIN (bba )n + BENIN (ajg )n + BENIN (ayb )n + BENIN (gbx )n + BENIN (xwl )n + BENIN (gej )n  (Porto Novo + Cotonou) President Nicephore Soglo
BOPHUTHATSWANA
De facto Semi-Independent
Republic of BOPHUTHATSWANA  (Mmabatho)Repaboleki ya BOPHUTHATSWANA (tn) + Republic of BOPHUTHATSWANA (en) + Republiek van BOPHUTHATSWANA (af)  (Mmabatho) President Lucas Mangope
BOTSWANA
UNO Member
Republic of BOTSWANA  (Gaborone)Republic of BOTSWANA (en) + Lefatshe la BOTSWANA (tn)  (Gaborone) President Quett Masire
BURKINA FASO
UNO Member
Republic of BURKINA FASO  (Ouagadougou)République du BURKINA FASO (fr)  (Ouagadougou) President Blaise Compaore
BURUNDI
UNO Member
Republic of BURUNDI  (Bujumbura)République du BURUNDI (fr) + IRepuburika y´UBURUNDI (rn)  (Bujumbura) President Pierre Buyoya
CAMEROON
UNO Member
Republic of CAMEROON  (Yaounde)République du CAMEROUN (fr) + Republic of CAMEROON (en)  (Yaoundé) President Paul Biya
CAPE VERDE
UNO Member
Republic of CAPE VERDE  (Praia)República de CABO VERDE (pt) + Repúblika di KAUBERDI (pov)  (Cidade da Praia) President Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro
CENTRAL SOMALIA
De facto IndependentRebellion
United Somali Congress : USC [Hawiye Warlordships of Mogadishu]  (Mogadishu)Ururka Golaha Soomaalida : UGS (so) + Al-Mutamar as-Suwmaliu al-Mutahida : MSM - المؤتمر الصومالي المتحدة (ar) + United Somali Congress : USC (en)  (Muqdisho) General Muhammad Farrah Aydid
CENTRAL-AFRICA
UNO Member
Central African Republic : CAR  (Bangui)République CENTRAFRICAINE (fr) + Ködörösêse tî BÊAFRÎKA (sg)  (Bangui) President Andre-Dieudonne Kolingba
CHAD
UNO Member
Republic of CHAD [French Forces of Operation Epervier]  (Ndjamena)Jumhūriyyat TSHĀD : جمهورية تشاد (ar) + République du TCHAD (fr)  (N´Djaména) President Idriss Deby
CISKEI
De facto Semi-Independent
Republic of CISKEI  (Bisho)iRiphabliki ye CISKEI (xh) + Republic of CISKEI (en)  (Bisho) Joshua Oupa Gqozo
COMOROS
UNO Member
Federal and Islamic Republic of the COMOROS  (Moroni)KOMORI ilitangazwa kuwa Jamhuri ya Kiislamu (zdj) + Jumhūrīyat AL-QUMUR al-Ittiḩādīyah al-Islāmīyah : جمهورية القمر الإتحادية الإسلامية (ar) + République islamique et fédérale des COMORES (fr)  (Moroni) President Said Mohamed Djohar
CONGO
UNO Member
People´s Republic of CONGO  (Brazzaville a + Pointe Noire n)République populaire du CONGO (fr)  (Brazzaville + Pointe-Noire) President Denis Sassou-Nguesso
COTE D´IVOIRE
UNO Member
Republic of COTE D´IVOIRE  (Yamoussoukro a + Abidjan dln)République de CÔTE D´IVOIRE (fr)  (Yamoussoukro + Abidjan) President Felix Houphouet-Boigny
EGYPT
UNO Member
Arab Republic of EGYPT  (Cairo a + Alexandria r)Ǧumhūriyyat MIṣR al-´Arabiyyah - جمهورية مصر العربية (ar) + Jumhuriyah MASR al-Arabiyah - جمهورية مصر العربية (arz )n  (Al-Qahirah + Al-Iskandarīyah) President Hosni Mubarak
EMBABEH
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Islamic Republic of EMBABEH  (Embabeh)Al-Jumhuriyat al-Islamiyat fi IMBABA : الجمهورية الإسلامية في إمبابة (ar)  (Imbaba) Omar Abdel-Rahman the Blind Sheikh
ENCLAVE OF CABINDA
RebellionExile
Federal Republic of CABINDA [Cabinda Governments-in-Exile]  (Pointe Noire + Cabinda Rebel Zones)Kilansi kia KABINDA (kg) + República Federal do CABINDA (pt)  (Pointe-Noire + Kabinda) President Luis de Gonzaga Ranque Franque
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
UNO Member
Republic of EQUATORIAL GUINEA  (Malabo a)República de GUINEA ECUATORIAL (es) + République de GUINÉE ÉQUATORIALE (fr)  (Malabo) President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo
ERITREA
De facto Independent
Provisional Government of ERITREA  (Asmara)Hagere ERTRA : ሃገረ ኤርትራ (ti) + Dawlat IRITRĪYA : دولة إرتريا (ar) + State of ERITREA (en)  (Asmera) Isaias Afewerki
ETHIOPIA
UNO Member
State of ETHIOPIA [Transitional Government]  (Addis Ababa)Transitional Government of the State of ETHIOPIA (en) + YE-ĪTYŌṗṗYĀ Menigisiti : የኢትዮIያ መንግስት (am)  (Addis Abeba-Finfinne) President Meles Zenawi
GABON
UNO Member
GABONESE Republic  (Libreville)République GABONAISE (fr)  (Libreville) President Omar Bongo
GAMBIA
UNO Member
Republic of THE GAMBIA  (Banjul)Republic of THE GAMBIA (en)  (Banjul) President Sir Dawda Jawara
GHANA
UNO Member
Republic of GHANA  (Accra)Republic of GHANA (en)  (Accra) Jerry Rawlings
GREATER LIBERIA
De facto IndependentRebellion
National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly Government : TAYLORLAND  (Gbarnga)National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly Government : NPRA (en)  (Gbarnga) Charles Taylor
GUINEA
UNO Member
Republic of GUINEA  (Conakry)République de GUINÉE (fr)  (Conakry) President Lansana Conte
GUINEA-BISSAU
UNO Member
Republic of GUINEA-BISSAU [Council of State]  (Bissau)República da GUINÉ-BISSAU (pt)  (Bissau) President Joao Bernardo Vieira
JIBUTI
UNO Member
Republic of JIBUTI  (Jibuti)République de DJIBOUTI (fr) + Jumhūriyyat JĪBŪTĪ : جمهورية جيبوتي (ar) + GABUUTIH Ummuuno (aa )n + Jamhuuriyadda JABUUTI (so )n  (Jibuti) President Hassan Gouled Aptidon
KENYA
UNO Member
Republic of KENYA  (Nairobi)Jamhuri ya KENYA (sw) + Republic of KENYA (en)  (Nairobi) President Daniel Arap Moi
LESOTHO
UNO Member
Kingdom of LESOTHO  (Maseru)Muso oa LESOTHO (st) + Kingdom of LESOTHO (en)  (Maseru) King Letsie III
LIBERIA
UNO Member
Republic of LIBERIA [Interim Government]  (Monrovia)Interim Government of Republic of LIBERIA (en)  (Monrovia) President Amos Sawyer
LIBYA
UNO Member
Great Socialist People´s Libyan Arab JAMAHIRIYA [Libyan State of the Masses]  (Tripoli a)Al-JAMĀHĪRIYYAH al-´Arabiyyah al-Lībiyyah aš-Ša´biyyah al-Ištirākiyyah al-´Uẓmā : الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية العظمى‎ (ar)  (Tarābulus) Guide Muammar Gaddafi
LIBYA-SUDAN
De facto Semi-Independent
Integral Union LIBYA-SUDAN  (Tripoli)Al-Itihad al-Mutakamil LIBIYA-AS-ASUDAN : الاتحاد المتكامل ليبيا - السودان (ar)  (Tarābulus) Joint Supreme Council
MADAGASCAR
UNO Member
MALAGASY Democratic Republic  (Tananarive)Repoblika Demokratika MALAGASY (mg) + République démocratique MALGACHE (fr)  (Antananarivo) President Didier Ratsiraka
MALAWI
UNO Member
Republic of MALAWI  (Lilongwe a + Zomba b)Republic of MALAWI (en) + Dziko la MALAŴI (ny)  (Lilongwe + Zomba) President Hastings Banda
MALI
UNO Member
Republic of MALI  (Bamako)République du MALI (fr)  (Bamako) President Alpha Oumar Konare
MALTA
UNO Member
Republic of MALTA  (Valletta a + Attard r + Siggiewi s)Repubblika ta´ Malta (mt) + Republic of MALTA (en)  (Il-Belt Valletta + Ħ´Attard + Is-Siġġiewi Città Ferdinand) President Censu Tabone
MAURITANIA
UNO Member
Islamic Republic of MAURITANIA [Military Committee for National Salvation]  (Nouakchott)Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Islāmiyyah al-MŪRĪTĀNIYYAH : الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (ar) + République islamique de MAURITANIE (fr )r + Republik bu Lislaamu bu GÀNNAAR (wo )n + Ndenndaani lislameeri MORITANI : ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⴰⵍⵉⵙⵍⴰⵎⵉⴰ ⵉⵎⵓⵔⵉⵜⴰⵏⵉⵢⵏ (fuc )n + MURUTAANE (snk )n  (Nuwakshut) Colonel Maaouya Ould Sid´Ahmed Taya
MAURITIUS
UNO Member
Dominion of MAURITIUS  (Port Louis a + Reduit in Moka r)Dominion of MAURITIUS (en) + Dominion de MAURICE (fr )r  (Port Louis + Reduit) Queen Elizabeth II
MOROCCO
UNO Member
Kingdom of MOROCCO  (Rabat a)Al Mamlakatu´l-MAGHRIBIYA : المملكة المغربية (ar)  (Ar-Rabat) King Hassan II
MOZAMBIQUE
UNO Member
Republic of MOZAMBIQUE  (Maputo)República de MOÇAMBIQUE (pt)  (Maputo) President Joaquim Chissano
MOZAMBIQUE-RENAMO
De facto IndependentRebellion
National Resistance Government of Mozambique : RENAMO  (Casa Banana-Gorongosa)Resistência Nacional Moçambicana : RENAMO (pt)  (Casa Banana-Gorongosa) Afonso Dhlakama
NAMIBIA
UNO Member
Republic of NAMIBIA  (Windhoek)Republic of NAMIBIA (en)  (Windhoek) President Sam Nujoma
NIGER
UNO Member
Republic of NIGER  (Niamey)République du NIGER (fr)  (Niamey) President Ali Saibou
NIGERIA
UNO Member
Federal Republic of NIGERIA  (Abuja)Federal Republic of NIGERIA (en)  (Abuja) President Ibrahim Babangida
RUF
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Revolutionary United Front : RUF [Rebel Army Controlled Regions of Sierra Leone]  (Makeni + Mapele)Revolutionary United Front : RUF (en)  (Makeni + Mapele) Pap Foday Sankoh
RWANDA
UNO Member
RWANDAN Republic [Neutral Military Observer Group-NMOG]  (Kigali)République RWANDAISE (fr) + Republika y´u RWANDA (rw)  (Kigali) President Juvenal Habyarimana
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
UNO Member
Democratic Republic of SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE  (Sao Tome)República Democrática de SÃO TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE (pt)  (São Tomé) President Miguel Trovoada
SENEGAL
UNO Member
Republic of SENEGAL  (Dakar)République du SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Dakar) President Abdou Diouf
SEYCHELLES
UNO Member
Republic of SEYCHELLES  (Port Victoria)Repiblik SESEL (crs) + Republic of SEYCHELLES (en) + République des SEYCHELLES (fr)  (Port Victoria) President France-Albert Rene
SIERRA LEONE
UNO Member
Republic of SIERRA LEONE  (Freetown)Republic of SIERRA LEONE (en) + Ripɔblik fɔ SIERA LIƆN (kri )n  (Freetown) President Joseph Saidu Momoh
SOMALIA
UNO Member
Republic of SOMALIA  (Mogadishu)Jamhuuriyadda SOOMAALIYA (so) + Jumhūriyyat aṣ-ṢŪMĀL : جمهورية الصومال (ar)  (Muqdisho) President Ali Mahdi Muhammad
SOMALILAND
De facto IndependentRebellion
Republic of SOMALILAND  (Hargeisa)Jamhuuriyadda SOOMAALILAND (so) + Jumhūrīyat ṢŪMĀLILĀND : جمهورية صوماللاند (ar) + Republic of SOMALILAND (en)  (Hargeysa) President Abdurahman Ahmad Ali Tuur
SOUTH AFRICA
UNO Member
Republic of South Africa : RSA  (Pretoria ae + Cape Town l + Bloemfontein j)Republiek van SUID-AFRIKA (af) + Republic of SOUTH AFRICA (en)  (Pretoria + Kaapstad + Bloemfontein) State President Frederik Willem de Klerk
SUDAN
UNO Member
Republic of THE SUDAN [Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation]  (Khartoum)Jumhuriyat AS-SUDAN : جمهورية السودان (ar) + Republic of THE SUDAN (en)  (Al-Khartum) Omar Al-Bashir
SWAZILAND
UNO Member
Kingdom of SWAZILAND  (Mbabane aj + Lobamba lr)Umbuso weSWATINI (ss) + Kingdom of SWAZILAND (en)  (éMbábáne + Lobamba) King Mswati III
TANZANIA
UNO Member
United Republic of TANZANIA  (Dar Es Salaam a + Dodoma f)Jamhuri ya Muungano wa TANZANIA (sw) + United Republic of TANZANIA (en)  (Dar-Es-Salaam + Dodoma) President Ali Hassan Mwinyi
TOGO
UNO Member
TOGOLESE Republic  (Lome)République TOGOLAISE (fr) + TOGO nye dukɔ (ee )n + TOGO kɛ tɛtʊ natʊyʊ (kbp )n  (Lomé) President Gnassingbe Eyadema
TRANSKEI
De facto Semi-Independent
Republic of TRANSKEI  (Umtata)iRiphabliki yeTRANSKEI (xh) + Republic of TRANSKEI (en) + Rephaboliki ya TRANSKEI (st) + Republiek van TRANSKEI (af)  (Mthatha) President Tutor Ndamase
TUNISIA
UNO Member
TUNISIAN Republic  (Tunis)Al-Jumhūriyya at-TŪNISIYYA : الجمهورية التونسية (ar)  (Tūnis) President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
UGANDA
UNO Member
Republic of UGANDA  (Kampala a + Entebbe r)Jamhuri ya UGANDA (sw) + Republic of UGANDA (en)  (Kampala + Entebbe) President Yoweri Museveni
VENDA
De facto Semi-Independent
Republic of VENDA  (Thohoyandou)Riphabuliki ya VENḓA (ve) + Republic of VENDA (en) + Republiek van VENDA (af)  (Thohoyandou) Gabriel Ramushwana
WESTERN SAHARA
UNO Observer
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic : SADR [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Tifariti qt + Bir Lehlu b + Camp Laayoune of Tindouf x)Al-Jumhūrīyya al-`Arabīyya aṣ-ṢAḥRĀWĪYYA ad-Dīmuqrātīyya : الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية (ar) + República Árabe Saharaui Democrática : RASD (es)  (Tifariti + Bir Lahlou + Mukhayam Laâyoune) President Mohamed Abdelaziz
ZAIRE
UNO Member
Republic of ZAIRE  (Kinshasa)République du ZAÏRE (fr)  (Kinshasa) President Mobutu Sese Seko
ZAMBIA
UNO Member
Republic of ZAMBIA  (Lusaka)Republic of ZAMBIA (en)  (Lusaka) President Frederick Chiluba
ZIMBABWE
UNO Member
Republic of ZIMBABWE  (Harare)Republic of ZIMBABWE (en)  (Harare) President Robert Mugabe

69 Polities (53 members of the International Community)


Rebel Entities & Governments in Exile


ACHOLILAND
De facto IndependentRebellion
Lord´s Resistance Army : LRA [in the Districts of Acholiland]  (Gulu)Lord´s Resistance Army : LRA (en)  (Gulu) Joseph Kony
AFARS
De facto IndependentRebellion
AFAR Republic [Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy : FRUD]  (Assa Gaila)République des AFARS : Front pour la Restauration de l´Unité et de la Démocratie : FRUD (fr) + Djoumouhirya AFAR : الجبهة من أجل استعادة الوحدة والديمقراطية (ar) + QAFAR Jumhuri : عفار (aa)  (´Assa Gaila) President Mohamed Adoyata Youssouf
AIR
Rebellion
Tuareg Berber Confederation of AIR Sultanate in rebellion : Front for the Liberation of Air and Azawak and Front for the Liberation of Tamoust  (Azawak Zones)Sultanat de l´AÏR (fr) + Kel Ayr : KEL AYAR - ⵅⴻⵍ ⵄⵢⴰⵔ (thz)  (Zones de l´Azaouak)
ANGOLA-IN-EXILE
Exile
Revolutionary Government of ANGOLA-IN-EXILE : National Liberation Front of Angola  (Paris)Govêrno revolucionário de ANGOLA NO EXÍLIO: Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola : FNLA (pt)  (Paris) Holden Roberto
ANGOLA-UNITA
De facto IndependentRebellion
Democratic People´s Republic of ANGOLA [Union for the Total Independence of Angola : UNITA]  (Jamba)República Democrática Popular de Angola : União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola : UNITA (pt)  (Jamba) President Jonas Savimbi
AZAWAD
Rebellion
United Movements and Fronts of Azawad : UMFA  (Azawad Zones)Fronts et Mouvements Unis de l´AZAWAD : FMUA (fr) + AZAWD : ⴰⵣⴰⵓⴰⴷ (taq)  (Azawad) Iyad ag Ghaly
BANYAMULENGE
Rebellion
Rwandan Patriotic Front : Patriotic Front of Rwanda : RPF  (Mulindi)Front Patriotique Rwandais : FPR (fr) + Ishyaka FPR-Inkotanyi (rw)  (Mulindi) Peter Bayingana
BUGANDA-IN-EXILE
Exile
Kingdom of BUGANDA-in-Exile  (London)Kingdom of BUGANDA (en) + Obwakabaka bwa BUGANDA (lg) + Ufalme wa BUGANDA (sw)  (London) King Mutebi II
CENTRAL SOMALIA
De facto IndependentRebellion
United Somali Congress : USC [Hawiye Warlordships of Mogadishu]  (Mogadishu)Ururka Golaha Soomaalida : UGS (so) + Al-Mutamar as-Suwmaliu al-Mutahida : MSM - المؤتمر الصومالي المتحدة (ar) + United Somali Congress : USC (en)  (Muqdisho) General Muhammad Farrah Aydid
CHAD-IN-EXILE
Exile
National Liberation Front of Chad : FROLINAT  (Algiers x)Front de libération national du Tchad : FROLINAT (fr) + Jabahah al-Tharir al-Outna TSHAD : جبهة التحرير الوطني لتشاد (ar)  (Al-Djazaïr) Gukuni Wodei
DULBAHANTE-WARSANGELI
Rebellion
United Somali Party : WARSANGELI AND DHULBAHANTE Clans  (Las Anod + Erigavo-East)Midoobaan Xisbiga Soomali : Xeer DUULBAAHAANTE-WARSANGELI (so) + USP : حزب الصومالي الموحد (ar)  (Laascaanood + Ceerigaabo) Mohamed Abdi Hashi
EMBABEH
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Islamic Republic of EMBABEH  (Embabeh)Al-Jumhuriyat al-Islamiyat fi IMBABA : الجمهورية الإسلامية في إمبابة (ar)  (Imbaba) Omar Abdel-Rahman the Blind Sheikh
ENCLAVE OF CABINDA
RebellionExile
Federal Republic of CABINDA [Cabinda Governments-in-Exile]  (Pointe Noire + Cabinda Rebel Zones)Kilansi kia KABINDA (kg) + República Federal do CABINDA (pt)  (Pointe-Noire + Kabinda) President Luis de Gonzaga Ranque Franque
ETHIOPIA-IN-EXILE
Exile
Imperial Government of ETHIOPIA-IN-EXILE  (Washington-District of Columbia)Nəgusä Nägäst ye-ITHIOPIYA : ንጉሠ ነገሥት (am)  (Washington-District of Columbia) Emperor Amha Selassie I
FREE CASAMANCE
Rebellion
Movement of Democratic Forces of CASAMANCE  (Guinea-Bissau Frontier)Mouvement des forces démocratiques de CASAMANCE (fr) + CASSAMUKU (dyo)  (Frontière de la Guinée-Bissao) Father Augustin Diamacoune Senghor
FREE ERITREA
Exile
ERITREAN Liberation Front  (Khartoum)Jabhat at-Tahrir al-ERTRY : جبهة التحرير الإريترية (ar) + ERTRA : የኤርትራ ነጻ አውጭ ግንባር (ti) + Eritrean Liberation Front : ELF (en) + Fronte di Liberazione Eritreo : FLE (it)  (Al-Khartum) Abdalla Idriss
FREE UGANDA
Rebellion
National Army for the Liberation of Uganda : NALU  (Nalu)National Army for the Liberation of Uganda : NALU (en)  (Nalu) Amon Bazira
GREATER LIBERIA
De facto IndependentRebellion
National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly Government : TAYLORLAND  (Gbarnga)National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly Government : NPRA (en)  (Gbarnga) Charles Taylor
HARATIN
Exile
African Liberation Forces of Mauritania : ALFM  (Dakar + Paris)Forces de Libération Africaines de Mauritanie : FLAM (fr)  (Dakar + Paris) President Samba Thiam
ISLAMIC EGYPT
Rebellion
Egyptian Islamic Jihad Group : EIJ  (Cairo)Al-Jihad AL-Islamiyah al-Misriyah : JIM - الجهاد الإسلامي المصري (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) Emir Ayman al-Zawahiri
KAWAR
Rebellion
Armed Front of the Tubu Rebellion in THE KAWAR  (Fachi)Front armé de la rébellion Toubou dans le KAWAR (fr)  (Fachi) Kawar Rebels
LIWAN
Rebellion
CENTRAL ILEMI Area [Pro-Ethiopian Dassanetch Control]  (Liwan)CENTRAL ILEMI Area (en) + Eradhi ILEMI AL-WASTA : المنطقة الوسطى الابتدائية (ar)  (Liwan) Dassanetch Rebels
MIJURTINIA
Rebellion
Somali Salvation Democratic Front : Republic of Majerteen  (Bosaso)Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed : Jamhuuriyadda MAJEERTEEN (so) + Jamhuriat MAJERTAIN : جمهورية ماجرتين (ar)  (Boosaaso) Mahamed Abshir Musa
MOZAMBIQUE-RENAMO
De facto IndependentRebellion
National Resistance Government of Mozambique : RENAMO  (Casa Banana-Gorongosa)Resistência Nacional Moçambicana : RENAMO (pt)  (Casa Banana-Gorongosa) Afonso Dhlakama
OGADENIA
Rebellion
Ogaden National Liberation Front : ONLF  (Shilavo)Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoreynta OGAADEENYA (so) + Al-Jabhat al-Wataniat li Tahrir ´AWJADIN : الجبهة الوطنية لتحرير أوجادين (ar) + OGADENYA : ኦጋደን ብሔራዊ ነጽነት ግንባር (am)  (Shelabo) Sheikh Ibrahim Abdallah Mohamed Mah
OGONILAND
Rebellion
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People : Kingdoms of OGONILAND  (Bori)Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People : Kingdoms of OGONILAND (en)  (Bori) King Godwin Giniwa
QIBLA
Rebellion
Muslims Against Global Oppression and Muslims Against Illegitimate Leaders : QIBLA for an Islamic State in South Africa  (Cape Town)Muslims Against Global Oppression and Muslims Against Illegitimate Leaders : QIBLA (en)  (Kaapstad) Achmad Cassiem
RAHANWEYN
Rebellion
Somali Democratic Movement : RAHANWEYN Clan  (Baidoa)Xeer RAHANWAYN (so) + RAHANWIN : رحنوين‎ (ar)  (Baydhabo) Abdulkadir Mohamed Adan Zobo
REHOBOTH BASTERLAND
Rebellion
Baster Captaincy of REHOBOTH Reserve  (Rehoboth)REHOBOTH BASTER Raad (af) + REHOBOTH BASTER Captain Council (en) + REHOBOTH BAASTER Kapiteins Raad (nl)  (Rehoboth) Captain Hans Diergaardt
RUF
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Revolutionary United Front : RUF [Rebel Army Controlled Regions of Sierra Leone]  (Makeni + Mapele)Revolutionary United Front : RUF (en)  (Makeni + Mapele) Pap Foday Sankoh
SANWI
Exile
Provisional SANWI Government-in-Exile  (Accra)Provisional SANWI Government-in-Exile (en) + Gouvernement SANWI provisoire en Exil (fr) + Ohene SANWI (any)  (Accra) King Amon Ndouffou IV
SAYA DE MALHA
Micronation
Principality of SAYA DE MALHA  (Saya of Malha)Principauté de SAYA DE MALHA (fr) + Principality of SAYA DE MALHA (en)  (Saya de Malha) Prince Pierre II
SHINILE
Rebellion
SHINILE Zone : Issa and Gurgura Liberation Front  (Shinile)Issa and Gurgura Liberation Front : IGLF  (Shinile) Riyale Ahmed
SOMALI BANTU
Rebellion
Somali African Muke Organization : SAMO  (Jarer Weyn)Somali Asal Muki Organization : SAMO (so)  (Jareerweyne) Mohamed Ramadan Arbow
SOMALIA-MAREHAN
De facto IndependentRebellion
SOMALI National Front : Marehan Clan  (Garbahare)Xeer MAREEXAAN - Somali Hore ee Qaranka (so) + Marehan - SNF : المحامي ماريهان - الجبهة الوطنية الصومالية (ar)  (Garbahaarreey) Mohamed Said Samantar Galie
SOMALILAND
De facto IndependentRebellion
Republic of SOMALILAND  (Hargeisa)Jamhuuriyadda SOOMAALILAND (so) + Jumhūrīyat ṢŪMĀLILĀND : جمهورية صوماللاند (ar) + Republic of SOMALILAND (en)  (Hargeysa) President Abdurahman Ahmad Ali Tuur
SOUTH SOMALIA
Rebellion
Somali Patriotic Movement : Ogadeni and Harti Clans of SOUTHERN SOMALIA  (Kismayo)Dhaqdhaqaaqa Wadaniga Soomaaliyeed : Xeer Ogaaden iyo Harti KOONFUR SOOMAALIYA (so) + SNM : الحركة الوطنية الصومالية (ar)  (Kismaayo) Aden Abdullahi Nur Gabyow
SOUTH SUDAN
De facto IndependentRebellion
SUDAN People´s Liberation Movement  (Bor g)SUDAN People´s Liberation Movement (en)  (Bor) Colonel John Garang de Maboir
SOUTHERN SUDAN
De facto IndependentRebellion
SUDAN People´s Liberation Movement-Nasir  (Nasir)SUDAN People´s Liberation Movement-Nasir (en)  (Nasir) Riek Machar

39 Rebel Entities


Protectorates & Mandates


ANGOLA
UNO Member
People´s Republic of ANGOLA [United Nations Angola Verification Mission-UNAVEM II]  (Luanda)República Popular de ANGOLA (pt)  (Luanda)
LAGOUIRA-GUERGUERAT
Buffer Zone of LAGOUIRA-GUERGUERAT Demilitarized Area  (Lagouira + Guerguerat)Territorio de LA GÜERA (es) + Al-Mintaqat al-Manzueat as-Silah LAGHWIRA-KARKARAT : المنطقة المنزوعة السلاح لاغويرا كوركيرات (ar) + Zone tampon du Territoire démilitarisé de LAGOUIRA-GUERGUERRAT (fr)  (Lagouira + Guergarat)
LIBERIA
UNO Member
Republic of LIBERIA [Interim Government]  (Monrovia)Interim Government of Republic of LIBERIA (en)  (Monrovia)
MINURSO
Western Sahara Restricted Area : United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO  (Umm Dreiga + Auserd)Zone restreinte du Sahara Occidental : Mission des Nations Unies pour l´Organisation d´un Référendum au Sahara Occidental-MINURSO (fr) + Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental : MINURSO (es) + Baethat al´-Umam al-Muttahidat li-Tanzim Aistifta´ fi al-Sahra´ al-Gharbia : MINURSO - بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية (ar) + United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara : MINURSO (en)  (Oum Dreyga + Awsard)
MOROCCAN SAHARA
Southern Provinces of the MOROCCAN SAHARA [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Laayoune)Wilayat AS-ṢAḥRĀ´ AL-MAGHRIBIYYA : محافظات الصحراء المغربية (ar)  (Laâyoune)
POLISARIO
Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia El-Hamra and Rio de Oro : POLISARIO  (Camp Rabouni)Ŷabhet el-Šaebiyah el-Tahrir Saquiyah El-Hamra´ O-Wodi Al-Daheb - AL-BOLISARIU : الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب‎ - البوليساريو (ar) + Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro : POLISARIO (es)  (Rabouni)
RWANDA
UNO Member
RWANDAN Republic [Neutral Military Observer Group-NMOG]  (Kigali)République RWANDAISE (fr) + Republika y´u RWANDA (rw)  (Kigali)
WESTERN SAHARA
UNO Observer
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic : SADR [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Tifariti qt + Bir Lehlu b + Camp Laayoune of Tindouf x)Al-Jumhūrīyya al-`Arabīyya aṣ-ṢAḥRĀWĪYYA ad-Dīmuqrātīyya : الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية (ar) + República Árabe Saharaui Democrática : RASD (es)  (Tifariti + Bir Lahlou + Mukhayam Laâyoune)

8 Protected Entities


Federated & Regionalised Polities


ABIA
Federated
ABIA State  (Umuahia)ABIA State (en)  (Umuahia)
ADAMAWA
Federated
ADAMAWA State  (Yola)ADAMAWA State (en)  (Yola)
ADDIS ABABA
Federated
Chartered City of ADDIS ABABA  (Addis Ababa)ADDIS ABEBA Astedader Akabibi : አዲስ አበባ አስማተኛ አፅቢቢ (am) + Chartered City of ADDIS ABABA (en) + FINFINNEE (om)  (Addis Abeba-Finfinne)
AFAR
Federated
AFAR Autonomous Region  (Asaita)QAFAR : አፋር : منطقة عفار (aa) + AFARI Rasgez Akababibi : አፋር አክአብቢብች (am) + AFAR Autonomous Region (en)  (Assayita)
AGAW
Federated
AGAW Autonomous Region  (Injibara)AGEW Rasgez Akababibi : አጋው ራጅዝ አክአብቢብች (am)  (Enjebara)
AKWA IBOM
Federated
AKWA IBOM State  (Uyo)AKWA IBOM State (en)  (Uyo)
AMHARA
Federated
AMHARA Autonomous Region  (Bahir Dar)AMHARA Rasgez Akababibi : አማራ አክአብቢብች (am) + AMHARA Autonomous Region (en)  (Baher Dar)
ANAMBRA
Federated
ANAMBRA State  (Awka)ANAMBRA State (en)  (Awka)
ANJOUAN
Federated
Federated State of ANJOUAN  (Mutsamudu)État fédéré d´ANJOUAN (fr) + Dawlat NZWANI : ميكرونيزيا حالة أنجوان (ar) + Shirikisho la NDZUWANI (wni)  (Mutsamudu)
ARUSHA
ARUSHA Region  (Arusha)Mkoa wa ARUSHA (sw) + ARUSHA Region (en)  (Arusha)
AWEIL
Federated
AWEIL County  (Aweil)Mudiriya UWAYL  (Uwayl)
AWSAT
Federated
CENTRAL State : Awsat State  (Wad Medani)Wilayah Al-Wusta : AL-AWSAT : ولاية الوسطى (ar) + AWSAT State (en)  (Wad Madani)
BAHR EL GHAZAL
Federated
BAHR EL GHAZAL State  (Wau)Wilayat BAHR AL-GHAZAL : ولاية بحر الغزال (ar) + BAHR EL GHAZAL State (en)  (Wāw)
BAUCHI
Federated
BAUCHI State  (Bauchi)BAUCHI State (en)  (Bauchi)
BENADIR
Federated
BENADIR Region  (Mogadishu)Gobolka BANAADIR (so) + Mintaqah BANĀDIR : منطقة بنادير (ar)  (Muqdisho)
BENISHANGUL
Federated
BENISHANGUL Autonomous Region  (Asosa)BENISHANGUL Rasgez Akababibi : ቤንሻንጉል ራጅዝ አክአብቢብች (am) + BENISHANGUL Autonomous Region (en)  (Āsosa)
BENUE
Federated
BENUE State  (Makurdi)BENUE State (en)  (Makurdi)
BIOKO
INSULAR Region  (Malabo)Región INSULAR (es) + Région INSULAIRE (fr)  (Malabo)
BOMI
BOMI County  (Tubmanburg)BOMI County (en)  (Tubmanburg)
BONG
BONG County  (Gbarnga)BONG County (en)  (Gbarnga)
BORNO
Federated
BORNO State  (Maiduguri)BORNO State (en)  (Maiduguri)
CANARIES
Autonomous Community of the CANARIES  (Santa Cruz of Tenerife [a][l] + Las Palmas of Great Canary [a])Comunidad Autónoma de CANARIAS (es)  (Santa Cruz de Tenerife + Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE Province  (Cape Town)CAPE OF GOOD HOPE Province (en) + KAAPprovinsie (af)  (Kaapstad)
CENTRAL KENYA
CENTRAL Province  (Nyeri)CENTRAL Province (en) + Mkoa wa KATI (sw)  (Nyeri)
COAST
COAST Province  (Mombasa)COAST Province (en) + Mkoa wa PWANI (sw)  (Mombasa)
CROSS RIVER
Federated
CROSS RIVER State  (Calabar)CROSS RIVER State (en)  (Calabar)
DAR ES SALAAM
DAR ES SALAAM Region  (Dar Es Salaam)Mkoa wa DAR-ES-SALAAM (sw) + DAR ES SALAAM Region (en)  (Dar-Es-Salaam)
DARFUR
Federated
DARFUR State  (El Fasher)Wilayaat DAR FUR : ولاية دارفور (ar) + DARFUR State (en)  (Al-Fashir)
DELTA
Federated
DELTA State  (Asaba)DELTA State (en)  (Asaba)
DODOMA
DODOMA Region  (Dodoma)Mkoa wa DODOMA (sw) + DODOMA Region (en)  (Dodoma)
DULBAHANTE
Federated
DULBAHANTE Clan  (Las Anod)Xeer DUULBAAHAANTE  (Laascaanood)
EASTERN KENYA
EASTERN Province  (Embu)EASTERN Province (en) + Mkoa wa MASHARIKI (sw)  (Embu)
EASTERN SIERRA LEONE
EASTERN Province  (Kenema)EASTERN Province (en)  (Kenema)
EDO
Federated
EDO State  (Benin City)EDO State (en)  (Benin City)
ENUGU
Federated
ENUGU State  (Enugu)ENUGU State (en)  (Enugu)
EQUATORIA
Federated
EQUATORIA State  (Juba)Wilayah ISTIWA´IYAH  (Juba)
GAMBELA
Federated
GAMBELA Autonomous Region  (Gambela)GAMBĒLA Rasgez Akababibi : ጋምቤላ ራጅዝ አክአብቢብች (am) + GAMBELA Autonomous Region (en)  (Gambëla)
GRAND BASSA
GRAND BASSA County  (Buchanan)GRAND BASSA County (en)  (Buchanan)
GRAND CAPE MOUNT
GRAND CAPE MOUNT County  (Robertsport)GRAND CAPE MOUNT County (en)  (Robertsport)
GRAND GEDEH
GRAND GEDEH County  (Zwedru)GRAND GEDEH County (en)  (Zwedru)
GRAND KRU
GRAND KRU County  (Barclayville)GRAND KRU County (en)  (Barclayville)
GREAT COMORO
Federated
Federated State of GREAT COMORO  (Moroni)État fédéré de la GRANDE COMORE (fr) + Dawlat AM-QOMOR AL-KUBRAA : دولت القمر الكبرى (ar) + Dola wa NGAZIDJA (zdj)  (Moroni)
GURAGE-HADIYA-KAMBATA
Federated
GURAGE-HADIYA-KAMBATA Autonomous Region  (Hosaina)GURAGE-HADIYYA-KEMBATA Rasgez Akababibi : ጉጅ-ሀዲያያያ-ኪምቤታ ራጅዝ አክአብቢብች (am)  (Hosa´ina)
HARAR
Federated
Chartered City of HARAR  (Harar)HARARE : هراري‎ (har) + HĀRER Astedader Akabibi : ሀሬር አስማተኛ አፅቢቢ (am) + Chartered City of HARAR (en)  (Hārer)
IMO
Federated
IMO State  (Owerri)IMO State (en)  (Owerri)
IRINGA
IRINGA Region  (Iringa)Mkoa wa IRINGA (sw) + IRINGA Region (en)  (Iringa)
JIGAWA
Federated
JIGAWA State  (Dutse)JIGAWA State (en)  (Dutse)
JUNGOLI
Federated
JUNGOLI State  (Bor)JUNGOLI State (en)  (Bor)
KADUNA
Federated
KADUNA State  (Kaduna)KADUNA State (en)  (Kaduna)
KAFFA
Federated
KAFFA Autonomous Region  (Jimma)KEFA Rasgez Akababibi : ኬፋ አክአብቢብች (am)  (Jima)
KAGERA
KAGERA Region  (Bukoba)Mkoa wa KAGERA (sw) + KAGERA Region (en)  (Bukoba)
KANO
Federated
KANO State  (Kano)KANO State (en)  (Kano)
KATSINA
Federated
KATSINA State  (Katsina)KATSINA State (en)  (Katsina)
KEBBI
Federated
KEBBI State  (Birnin Kebbi)KEBBI State (en)  (Birnin Kebbi)
KHARTOUM
Federated
KHARTOUM State  (Khartoum)Wilayah AL-KHARTUM : ولاية الخرطوم (ar) + KHARTOUM State (en)  (Al-Khartum)
KIGOMA
KIGOMA Region  (Kigoma)Mkoa wa KIGOMA (sw) + KIGOMA Region (en)  (Kigoma)
KILIMANJARO
KILIMANJARO Region  (Moshi)Mkoa wa KILIMANJARO (sw) + KILIMANJARO Region (en)  (Moshi)
KOGI
Federated
KOGI State  (Lokoja)KOGI State (en)  (Lokoja)
KORDOFAN
Federated
KORDOFAN State  (El Obeid)Wilayat KURDUFUN : ولاية كردفان (ar) + KORDOFAN State (en)  (Al-Ubayyid)
KURMUK
Federated
KURMUK County  (Kurmuk)KURMAK County  (Kurmak)
KWARA
Federated
KWARA State  (Ilorin)KWARA State (en)  (Ilorin)
LAGOS
Federated
LAGOS State  (Ikeja)LAGOS State (en)  (Ikeja)
LINDI
LINDI Region  (Lindi)Mkoa wa LINDI (sw) + LINDI Region (en)  (Lindi)
LOFFA
LOFFA County  (Voinjama)LOFFA County (en)  (Voinjama)
MARA
MARA Region  (Musoma)Mkoa wa MARA (sw) + MARA Region (en)  (Musoma)
MARGIBI
MARGIBI County  (Kakata)MARGIBI County (en)  (Kakata)
MARYLAND
MARYLAND County  (Harper)MARYLAND County (en)  (Harper)
MBEYA
MBEYA Region  (Mbeya)Mkoa wa MBEYA (sw) + MBEYA Region (en)  (Mbeya)
MOHELI
Federated
Federated State of MOHELI  (Fomboni)État fédéré de MOHÉLI (fr) + Dawlat MWALI : ميكرونيزيا حالة موهيلي (ar) + Shirikisho la MWALI (wlc)  (Fomboni)
MONTSERRADO
MONTSERRADO County  (Bensonville)MONTSERRADO County (en)  (Bensonville)
MOROGORO
MOROGORO Region  (Morogoro)Mkoa wa MOROGORO (sw) + MOROGORO Region (en)  (Morogoro)
MTWARA
MTWARA Region  (Mtwara)Mkoa wa MTWARA (sw) + MTWARA Region (en)  (Mtwara)
MUSINA
Vhavenda Chieftaincy of MUSINA  (Musina)MUSINA District  (Musina)
MWANZA
MWANZA Region  (Mwanza)Mkoa wa MWANZA (sw) + MWANZA Region (en)  (Mwanza)
NAIROBI AREA
NAIROBI AREA Province  (Nairobi)NAIROBI AREA Province (en) + Mkoa wa NAIROBI (sw)  (Nairobi)
NATAL
NATAL Province  (Pietermaritzburg)Province of NATAL (en) + Provinsie NATAL (af)  (Pietermaritzburg)
NIGER
Federated
NIGER State  (Minna)NIGER State (en)  (Minna)
NIMBA
NIMBA County  (Sanniquellie)NIMBA County (en)  (Sanniquellie)
NORTH EASTERN KENYA
NORTH EASTERN Province  (Garissa)NORTH EASTERN Province (en) + Mkoa wa KASKAZINI-MASHARIKI (sw)  (Garissa)
NORTHERN SIERRA LEONE
NORTHERN Province  (Makeni)NORTHERN Province (en)  (Makeni)
NUBA MOUNTAINS
Federated
NUBA MOUNTAINS Region  (Kadogli)NUBA MOUNTAINS Region  (Kaduqli)
NYANZA
NYANZA Province  (Kisumu)NYANZA Province (en) + Mkoa wa NYANZA (sw)  (Kisumu)
OGUN
Federated
OGUN State  (Abeokuta)OGUN State (en)  (Abeokuta)
OMO
Federated
OMO Autonomous Region  (Arba Minch)OMO Rasgez Akababibi : ኦሞ አክአብቢብች (am) + OMO Autonomous Region (en)  (Arba Minch)
ONDO
Federated
ONDO State  (Akure)ONDO State (en)  (Akure)
ORANGE FREE STATE
ORANGE FREE STATE Province  (Bloemfontein)ORANJE-VRYSTAAT Provinsie (af) + ORANGE FREE STATE Province (en)  (Bloemfontein)
OROMO
Federated
OROMO Autonomous Region  (Nazret + Addis Ababa)OROMOO (om) + OROMO Rasgez Akababibi : ኦሮሞ አክአብቢብች (am) + OROMO Autonomous Region (en)  (Adaamaa + Addis Abeba-Finfinne)
OSUN
Federated
OSUN State  (Oshogbo)OSUN State (en)  (Osogbo)
OYO
Federated
OYO State  (Ibadan)OYO State (en)  (Ibadan)
PEMBA NORTH
PEMBA NORTH Region  (Wete)PEMBA NORTH Region (en) + Mkoa wa PEMBA KASKAZINI (sw)  (Wete)
PEMBA SOUTH
PEMBA SOUTH Region  (Mkoani)PEMBA SOUTH Region (en) + Mkoa wa PEMBA KUSINI (sw)  (Mkoani)
PLATEAU
Federated
PLATEAU State  (Jos)PLATEAU State (en)  (Jos)
PWANI
PWANI Region [Coast]  (Kibaha)Mkoa wa PWANI (sw) + PWANI Region (en)  (Kibaha)
RIFT VALLEY
RIFT VALLEY Province  (Nakuru)RIFT VALLEY Province (en) + Mkoa wa BONDE LA UFA (sw)  (Nakuru)
RIO MUNI
CONTINENTAL Region  (Bata)Región CONTINENTAL (es) + Région CONTINENTALE (fr)  (Bata)
RIVERCESS
RIVERCESS County  (Rivercess)RIVERCESS County (en)  (Rivercess)
RIVERS
Federated
RIVERS State  (Port Harcourt)RIVERS State (en)  (Port Harcourt)
RUKWA
RUKWA Region  (Sumbawanga)Mkoa wa RUKWA (sw) + RUKWA Region (en)  (Sumbawanga)
RUVUMA
RUVUMA Region  (Songea)Mkoa wa RUVUMA (sw) + RUVUMA Region (en)  (Songea)
SHAMALIYAH
Federated
NORTHERN State : Shamaliyah State  (Damer)Wilayah ASH-SHAMALIYAH : الولاية الشمالية (ar) + ASH-SHAMALIYAH State (en)  (Ad-Damir)
SHARQIYAH
Federated
EASTERN State : Sharqiyah State  (Kassala)Wilayat ASH-SHARQIYAH : ولاية الشرقية (ar) + EASTERN State (en)  (Kassala)
SHINYANGA
SHINYANGA Region  (Shinyanga)Mkoa wa SHINYANGA (sw) + SHINYANGA Region (en)  (Shinyanga)
SIDAMO
Federated
SIDAMO Autonomous Region  (Awasa)SIDAMO Rasgez Akababibi : ሲዳሞ ራጅዝ አክአብቢብች (am)  (Hawassa)
SINGIDA
SINGIDA Region  (Singida)Mkoa wa SINGIDA (sw) + SINGIDA Region (en)  (Singida)
SINOE
SINOE County  (Greenville)SINOE County (en)  (Greenville)
SOKOTO
Federated
SOKOTO State  (Sokoto)SOKOTO State (en)  (Sokoto)
SOMALI
Federated
SOMALI Autonomous Region  (Kelafo)Gobolka SOOMAALIDA (so) + Mintaqat as-SUMALIYA : المنطقة الصومالية (ar) + SOMALI Rasgez Akababibi : ሶማሌ አክአብቢብች (am) + SOMALI Autonomous Region  (Qelafo)
SOUTHERN SIERRALEONE
SOUTHERN Province  (Bo Town)SOUTHERN Province (en)  (Bo)
SUNNA AND JAMMA
Federated
SUNNA AND JAMMA Organization  (Abudwak)Tanzim AHL AS-SUNNA WAL-JAMMA : تنظيم أهل السنة والجماعة (ar) + Ururka ayaa Ah Sunniyiin iyo Kooxda : AHLU-SUNNA WAL-JAAMA (so)  (Caabudwaaq)
TABORA
TABORA Region  (Tabora)Mkoa wa TABORA (sw) + TABORA Region (en)  (Tabora)
TANGA
TANGA Region  (Tanga)Mkoa wa TANGA (sw) + TANGA Region (en)  (Tanga)
TARABA
Federated
TARABA State  (Jalingo)TARABA State (en)  (Jalingo)
TIGRE
Federated
TIGRE Autonomous Region  (Mekele)Kilil TƏGRAY : ክልል ትግራይ (ti) + TIGRĀY Rasgez Akababibi : ትግራይ አክአብቢብች (am) + TIGRAY Autonomous Region (en)  (Mek´elē)
TRANSVAAL
TRANSVAAL Province  (Pretoria)TRANSVAAL Province (en) + Provinsie TRANSVAAL (af)  (Pretoria)
UPPER NILE
Federated
UPPER NILE State  (Malakal)Wilayah A´ALI AN-NIL : ولاية أعالي النيل (ar) + UPPER NILE State (en)  (Malakal)
WARSANGELI
Federated
WARSANGELI Clan  (Erigavo-East)Qabiilka WARSANGELI (so) + Qabilat WARSINGELI : قبيلة أوسنجلي (ar)  (Ceerigaabo)
WEST EQUATORIA
Federated
WEST EQUATORIA State  (Yambio)WEST EQUATORIA State (en)  (Yambio)
WESTERN KENYA
WESTERN Province  (Kakamega)WESTERN Province (en) + Mkoa wa MAGHARIBI (sw)  (Kakamega)
YOBE
Federated
YOBE State  (Damaturu)YOBE State (en)  (Damaturu)
ZANZIBAR CENTRAL-SOUTH
ZANZIBAR CENTRAL-SOUTH Region  (Koani)ZANZIBAR CENTRAL-SOUTH Region (en) + Mkoa wa ZANZIBAR KATI NA KUSINI (sw)  (Koani)
ZANZIBAR NORTH
ZANZIBAR NORTH Region  (Mkokotoni)ZANZIBAR NORTH Region (en) + Mkoa wa UNGUJA KASKAZINI (sw)  (Mkokotoni)
ZANZIBAR URBAN-WEST
ZANZIBAR URBAN-WEST Region  (Zanzibar)ZANZIBAR URBAN-WEST Region (en) + Mkoa wa ZANZIBAR MIJNI MAGHARIBI (sw)  (Zanzibar)

122 Federated or Regionalized Polities


Territories & Dependencies


ABUJA
ABUJA Capital Territory  (Abuja)ABUJA Capital Territory (en)  (Abuja)
AGALEGA AND SAINT BRANDON ISLANDS
AGALEGA AND SAINT BRANDON ISLANDS Dependencies  (Raphael)AGALEGA AND SAINT BRANDON ISLANDS Dependencies (en) + Dépendances des ÎLES AGALÉGA ET SAINT-BRANDON (fr)  (Raphael)
AZORES
AZORES Autonomous Region  (Ponta Delgada + Horta + Angra)Região Autónoma dos AÇORES (pt)  (Ponta Delgada + Horta + Angra do Heroísmo)
BISSAU CITY
BISSAU Autonomous Sector  (Bissau)Sector Autónomo de BISSAU (pt)  (Bissau)
BUSHMANLAND
BUSHMANLAND Reserve  (Tsumkwe)BUSHMANLAND Reserve (en)  (Tsumkwe)
DAMARALAND
DAMARALAND Reserve  (Okombahe + Khorixas)DAMARALAND Reserve (en)  (Okombahe + Khorixas)
GAZANKULU
Autonomous Homeland of GAZANKULU  (Giyani)GAZANKULU Homeland (en) + GAZANKULU Tuisland (af) + Mfumo wa GAZANKULU (ts)  (Giyani)
GOZO
Semi-Autonomous Region of GOZO  (Victoria-Rabat)Reġjun ta ´GHAWDEX (mt) + Region of GOZO (en)  (Ir-Rabat)
HEREROLAND EAST
HEREROLAND EAST Reserve  (Otjinene)HEREROLAND EAST Reserve (en)  (Otjinene)
HEREROLAND WEST
HEREROLAND WEST Reserve  (Okakarara)HEREROLAND WEST Reserve (en)  (Okakarara)
ILEMI TRIANGLE
ILEMI TRIANGLE Zone [Kenyan Administration]  (Ilemi)ILEMI TRIANGLE Zone (en) + Ukanda ya ILEMI (sw) + Eradi ILEMI : أراضي يليمي (ar)  (Llemi)
KANGWANE
Autonomous Homeland of KANGWANE  (Louieville [a] + Schoemansdal [q])KANGWANE Homeland (en) + KANGWANE Tuisland (af) + Ka NGWANE (ss)  (KaNyamasane + Schoemansdal)
KAOKOLAND
KAOKOLAND Reserve  (Opuwo)KAOKOLAND Reserve (en) + Ova HIMBA (her)  (Opuwo)
KAVANGO
KAVANGO Reserve  (Rundu)KAVANGO Reserve (en)  (Rundu)
KWANDEBELE
Independent Homeland of KWANDEBELE  (Kwamhlanga)Kwa NDEBELE (nr) + Kwa NDEBELE (zu) + Kwa NDEBELE (nso) + KWANDEBELE Homeland (en) + KWANDEBELE Tuisland (af)  (KwaMhlanga)
KWAZULU
Self-Governing Homeland of KWAZULU  (Ulundi)KWAZULU Homeland (en) + KwaZULU (zu) + KWAZULU-Tuisland (af)  (Ulundi)
LAGOUIRA-GUERGUERAT
Buffer Zone of LAGOUIRA-GUERGUERAT Demilitarized Area  (Lagouira + Guerguerat)Territorio de LA GÜERA (es) + Al-Mintaqat al-Manzueat as-Silah LAGHWIRA-KARKARAT : المنطقة المنزوعة السلاح لاغويرا كوركيرات (ar) + Zone tampon du Territoire démilitarisé de LAGOUIRA-GUERGUERRAT (fr)  (Lagouira + Guergarat)
LEBOWA
Autonomous Homeland of LEBOWA  (Lebowakgomo)LEBOWA Homeland (en) + LEBOWA Tuisland (af) + Naha ea Habo LEBOA (nso)  (Lebowakgomo)
LIWAN
Rebellion
CENTRAL ILEMI Area [Pro-Ethiopian Dassanetch Control]  (Liwan)CENTRAL ILEMI Area (en) + Eradhi ILEMI AL-WASTA : المنطقة الوسطى الابتدائية (ar)  (Liwan)
MADEIRA
MADEIRA Autonomous Region  (Funchal)Região Autónoma da MADEIRA (pt)  (Funchal)
MAYOTTE
Territorial Collectivity of MAYOTTE  (Mamoutzou)Collectivité territoriale de MAYOTTE (fr)  (Mamoudzou)
MINURSO
Western Sahara Restricted Area : United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO  (Umm Dreiga + Auserd)Zone restreinte du Sahara Occidental : Mission des Nations Unies pour l´Organisation d´un Référendum au Sahara Occidental-MINURSO (fr) + Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental : MINURSO (es) + Baethat al´-Umam al-Muttahidat li-Tanzim Aistifta´ fi al-Sahra´ al-Gharbia : MINURSO - بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية (ar) + United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara : MINURSO (en)  (Oum Dreyga + Awsard)
MOROCCAN SAHARA
Southern Provinces of the MOROCCAN SAHARA [United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara-MINURSO]  (Laayoune)Wilayat AS-ṢAḥRĀ´ AL-MAGHRIBIYYA : محافظات الصحراء المغربية (ar)  (Laâyoune)
NAMALAND
NAMALAND Reserve  ((Keetmanshoop) + Gibeon)NAMALAND Reserve (en)  ((Keetmanshoop) + Gibeon)
OUTER ISLANDS OF SEYCHELLES
OUTER ISLANDS District [Coralline Islands]  (Coetivy)Distrikt ZIL ELWANNYEN SESEL (crs) + OUTER ISLANDS District (en) + District des ÎLES ÉLOIGNÉES (fr)  (Coëtivy)
OVAMBO
OVAMBO Reserve  (Ondangwa)OVAMBO Reserve (en)  (Ondangwa)
PARSLEY ISLAND
Disputed Territory of PARSLEY ISLAND  (Tura)Jazirat TOURAH : جزيرة تورة (ar) + Territorio del ISLA DEL PEREJIL (es)  (Tura)
POLISARIO
Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia El-Hamra and Rio de Oro : POLISARIO  (Camp Rabouni)Ŷabhet el-Šaebiyah el-Tahrir Saquiyah El-Hamra´ O-Wodi Al-Daheb - AL-BOLISARIU : الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب‎ - البوليساريو (ar) + Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro : POLISARIO (es)  (Rabouni)
QWAQWA
Autonomous Basotho Homeland of QWAQWA  (Phuthaditjhaba)QWAQWA Homeland (en) + QWAQWA Tuisland (af) + Naha ea Habo QWAQWA (st)  (Phuthaditjhaba)
REHOBOTH
REHOBOTH Reserve  (Rehoboth)REHOBOTH Reserve (en)  (Rehoboth)
REUNION
French Overseas Region of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Région d´outre-mer française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de la Réunion)
RODRIGUES ISLAND
RODRIGUES ISLAND Council  (Port Mathurin)RODRIGUES ISLAND Council (en) + Conseil de l´ÎLE RODRIGUES (fr)  (Port Mathurin)
SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES
British Dependent Territory of SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES  (Jamestown)British Dependent Territory of SAINT HELENA AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Jamestown)
SAINT HELENA DOMAINS
French National Domains on SAINT HELENA  (Longwood House)Domaines nationaux de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SINAI PENINSULA
Multinational Force and Observers in SINAI PENINSULA Peacekeeping Zones  (Rome + El Gorah + Sharm El-Sheikh)Multinational Force and Observers : MFO (en) + Al-Quat Mutaeadidat al-Jinsiat wal Muraqibun fi SINA´ : القوة متعددة الجنسيات والمراقبون (ar)  (Roma + El Gorah + Sharm Ash-Shaykh)
SINAI ZONE D
Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D  (Zone D)Sinai Peacekeeping ZONE D (en) + Azor SINAI D : אזור סיני ד´ (he) + Mintaqah SINA´ D : منطقة سيناء د (ar)  (Zone D)
THABA NCHU
Tswana Barolong Baseleka Chiefdom of THABA NCHU [Enclave]  (Thaba Nchu)Hoofmanskap Barolong baSeleka van THABA NCHU (af) + BaRolong baSeleka Chiefdom of THABA NCHU (en) + Kgôsi BARÔLÔNG BASELEKA (tn)  (Thaba Nchu)
TONG-TONG TAO
Unclaimed Territory of TONG-TONG TAO  (Tong-Tong + Tao)Territoire de TONG-TONG TAO (fr)  (Tong-Tong + Tao)
ZANZIBAR
Revolutionary Council of ZANZIBAR  (Zanzibar)Revolutionary Government of ZANZIBAR (en) + Serikali ya Mapinduzi ya ZANZIBAR (sw)  (Zanzibar)

39 Territories & Dependencies



International Organisations or Groupings (selective list)


ACCORD
Organisation
Council of ACCORD : Council of Understanding  (Abidjan)Conseil de l´ENTENTE (fr)  (Abidjan) Felix Houphouet-Boigny (ci)
AFRICAN BANK
OrganisationUNO Observer
African Development Bank : AFDB  (Abidjan)African Development Bank : AfDB (en) + Banque Africaine de Développement : BAFD (fr)  (Abidjan) President Babacar Ndiaye (sn)
AFRICAN NATURE
Organisation
African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources : CONVENTION ON CONSERVATION  (Algiers)African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources : CONVENTION ON CONSERVATION (en) + Convention Africaine sur la Conservation de la Nature et des Ressources Naturelles : CONVENTION SUR LA CONSERVATION (fr)  (Al-Djazaïr) SG Salim Ahmed Salim (tz)
AFRICAN UNITY
OrganisationUNO Observer
Organization of African Unity : OAU  (Addis Ababa)Organization of African Unity : OAU (en) + Organisation de l´Unité Africaine : OUA (fr)  (Addis Abeba-Finfinne) SG Salim Ahmed Salim (tz)
AIPO
Organisation
African Intellectual Property Organization : AIPO  (Yaounde)Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle : OAPI (fr)  (Yaoundé) (unknown)
APPA
Organisation
African Petroleum Producers´ Association : APPA  (Brazzaville)African Petroleum Producers´ Association : APPA (en) + Association des pays Africains Producteurs de Pétrole : APPA (fr)  (Brazzaville) (unknown)
ARAB LEAGUE
OrganisationUNO Observer
League of Arab States : ARAB LEAGUE  (Cairo)Jāmiʻat AD-DUWAL AL-ʻARABIYYA : جامعة الدول العربية (ar)  (Al-Qahirah) SG Esmat Abdel-Megid (eg)
ARAB MAGHREB UNION
Organisation
Arab Maghreb Union : AMU  (Rabat)Ittihad al-Maghrib al-Araby - IMA : اتحاد المغرب العربي (ar) + Union du Maghreb Arabe : UMA (fr)  (Ar-Rabat) SG Mohamed Amamou (tn)
ARAB UNITY
Organisation
Council of Arab Economic Unity : CAEU  (Cairo)Cils al-Ouhdh al-Aguetsadah al-Arabiyah : CAEU - مجلس الوحدة الاقتصادية العربية (ar) + Council of Arab Economic Unity : CAEU (en)  (Al-Qahirah) SG Esmat Abdel-Megid (eg)
ASECNA
Organisation
Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar : ASECNA  (Dakar)Agence pour la sécurité de la navigation aérienne en Afrique et à Madagascar : ASECNA (fr)  (Dakar) Trusteeship Committee of Ministers
CENTRAL AFRICAN STATES
Organisation
Economic Community of Central African States : ECCAS  (Libreville)Communauté Économique des États de l´Afrique Centrale : CÉÉAC (fr) + Comunidade Econômica dos Estados da África Central : CEEÁC (pt)  (Libreville) SG Kasasa Cinyanta Mutati (cd)
EAST AFRICA
Organisation
Countries of EAST AFRICA  (Arusha)Countries of EAST AFRICA (en) + Nchi ya AFRIKA MASHARIKI (sw)  (Arusha) Presidents
EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
Organisation
Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa : PTA  (Bujumbura)Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa : PTA (en) + Aire de Commerce Préférentielle de l´Afrique Orientale et Australe : ACP (fr) + Área de Comércio Preferencial da África Oriental e Austral : ÁCP (pt)  (Bujumbura) SG Bingu wa Mutharika (mw)
GREAT LAKES COUNTRIES
Organisation
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries : ECGLC  (Gisenyi)Communauté Économique des Pays des Grand Lacs : CÉPGL (fr)  (Gisenyi) Foreign Ministers
IGADD
Organisation
Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development : IGADD  (Jibuti)Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development : IGADD (en) + Autorité Intergouvernementale sur la Sécheresse et le Développement : IGADD (fr)  (Jibuti) Secretary David Muduuli (ug)
INDIAN OCEAN
Organisation
Secretariat of Indian Ocean Commission : IOC  (Port Louis)Commission de l´Océan Indien : COI (fr) + Indian Ocean Commission : IOC (en)  (Port Louis) SG Henri Rasolondraibe (mg)
ISESCO
Organisation
Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO  (Rabat)Al-Munazamat al-Islamiat lil Tarbiat wal-Eulum wal-Thaqafa - ISESCO : المنظمة الإسلامية للتربية والعلوم والثقافة (ar) + Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization : ISESCO (en) + Organisation Islamique pour l´Éducation les Sciences et la Culture : ISESCO (fr)  (Ar-Rabat) DG Abdulaziz Othman Altwaijri (sa)
LAKE CHAD BASIN
Organisation
Lake Chad Basin Commission : LCBC  (Ndjamena)Commission du Bassin du Lac Tchad : CBLT (fr) + Lake Chad Basin Commission : LCBC (en)  (N´Djaména) Abubakar Bobboi Jauro (ng)
LIPTAKO-GURMA
Organisation
Integrated Development Authority of Liptako-Gurma Region : ALG  (Ouagadougou)Autorité de développement intégré de la région du Liptako-Gourma : ALG (fr)  (Ouagadougou) DG Blaise Compaore (bf)
MOROCCO-AMERICA
Organisation
MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship (en) + Mueahadat al-Sadaqat AL-MAGHRIBAT AL-´AMRIKIA : معاهدة الصداقة المغربية الأمريكية (ar)  (Ar-Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia) Chiefs of States
SOUTHERN AFRICA
Organisation
Southern African Development Coordination Conference : SADCC  (Lusaka)Southern African Development Coordination Conference : SADCC (en) + Conferência de Coordenação para o Desenvolvimento da África Austral : CCDAA (pt)  (Lusaka) Secretary Simba Makoni (zw)
UN-HABITAT
Organisation
United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)United Nations Human Settlements Programme : UN-HABITAT (en) + Programme des Nations Unies pour les Établissements Humains : ONU-HABITAT (fr) + Programa de Naciones Unidas para los Asentamientos Humanos : ONU-HABITAT (es) + Programma Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Naselennym Punktam : Программа Организация Объединённых Наций по Hаселённым Пунктам : ООН-ХАБИТАТ (ru) + UN-HABITAT : برنامج الأمم المتحدة للمستوطنات البشرية (ar)  (Nairobi) SG Boutros Boutros-Ghali (eg)
UNEP
Organisation
United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP Specialized Agency  (Nairobi)United Nations Environmental Programme : UNEP (en) + Programme des Nations Unies pour l´Environnement : PNUE (fr) + Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente : PNUMA (es) + Programma Organizatsiya Obedinnenyh Naziy po Okruzhayuschey Srede : POOS - Программа Организация Объединённых Наций по Окружающей Cреде : ПООC (ru) + Lianheguo Huanjing Shu : LHS - 联合国环境署 (zh) + UNEP : برنامج الأمم المتحدة للبيئة (ar)  (Nairobi) Elizabeth Dowdeswell (ca)
UNION OF CENTRAL AFRICA
Organisation
Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa : UDEAC  (Bangui)Union Douanière et Économique de l´Afrique Centrale : UDÉAC (fr)  (Bangui) President Francois Mitterrand
WEST AFRICAN STATES
Organisation
Economic Community of West African States : ECOWAS  (Abuja)Economic Community of West African States : ECOWAS (en) + Communauté économique des États de l´Afrique de l´Ouest : CÉDÉAO (fr) + Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental : CEDEAO (pt)  (Abuja) Secretary Abass Bundu (sl)
WEST AFRICAN UNION
Organisation
West African Monetary Union : WAMU  (Abidjan)Union Monétaire Ouest-Africaine : UMOA (fr)  (Abidjan) Charles Konan Banny (ci)

26 Organisations & Groupings (selective list)

ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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