1906-SEP-14



 ° SOVEREIGN & SEMI-INDEPENDENT POLITIES  ° PROTECTORATES & MANDATES  ° FEDERATED & REGIONALIZED POLITIES
 ° TERRITORIES & DEPENDENCIES  ° REBEL ENTITIES & GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE  ° ORGANISATIONS & GROUPINGS


Independent & Semi-Independent Polities


ABYSSINIA
De facto Independent
Ethiopian Empire : ABYSSINIA  (Addis Ababa a + Addis Alem s)Ye-ITYOP´P´YA Mängəstä : የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት (am) + Negusa Nagast Mengisti ye-ITIYOPIYA : ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥቲ ዘ ኢትዮጵያ (gez)  (Addis Abeba + Ejerie) Emperor Menelik II
ADRER
De facto Semi-Independent
Emirate of ADRAR [Spanish Protectorate]  (Atar)Emirat ADERER : إميرات آدرار (ar) + Emirato de ADRAR (es)  (Atar) Emir Shaykh al-Hasana
AGADEZ
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of AGADEZ [Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air Vassal of France]  (Agades)Sultanat d´AGADEZ (fr) + Kel Ayr : KEL AYAR - ⵅⴻⵍ ⵄⵢⴰⵔ (thz)  (Agadès) Amenokal Uthman Mikitan bin Abd Al-Qadir
AUSSA
De facto Semi-Independent
Afar Sultanate of AUSSA  (Aussa)Saltanat CANFARTA : سلطنة عفر (aa) + Saltanat AWSA : سلطنة عفر (ar)  (Awsa) Sultan Hanfade
BARWE
De facto Semi-Independent
Kingdom of BARWE  (Vila Gouveia)Reino de BÁRUÈ (pt) + Balke : BARWE (bwg) + Balke : BARWE (sn)  (Vila Gouveia) King Felix de Sousa Gouveia
BIMAL
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
BIMAL Tribe Resistance of the Benadir Coast  (Merere + (Merca))Beesha BIIMAAL (so) + Banu JAMAL : بنو جمال (ar) + Tribù dei BIMAL (it)  (Merère + (Merca)) Sheikh Abdi Abikar Gafle
BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA
De facto Semi-Independent
British South Africa Company : BSAC [Rhodesia Protectorate]  (Salisbury)British South Africa Company : BSAC (en)  (Salisbury) King Edward VII
BUNDALAND
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Kingdom of BUNDALAND  (Kangamba)Chuundi ca MBUNDA (mck) + Reino dos BUNDAS (pt)  (Kalyamba) King Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova
CONGO
De facto Semi-Independent
Independent State of The Congo : CONGO FREE STATE  (Boma)État indépendant du Congo : ÉTAT LIBRE DU CONGO (fr)  (Boma) King Leopold II
DAR GIMIR
De facto Semi-Independent
DAR GIMIR Sultanate Dependency of Dar Masalit  (Qanatir)Sultanat DAR KIMR : سولتانات دار كيمر (tma) + Sultanat DAR QIMR : سولتانات دار كيمر (ar)  (Qanâtir) Sultan Idris bin Abi Bakr
DAR MASALIT
De facto Semi-Independent
DAR MASALIT Sultanate [under Darfuri Suzerainty]  (Jebeil)Sultanat DAR MASALIT : سلطنة دار المساليت (mls) + Sultanat DAR AL-MASALIT : سلطنة دار المساليت (ar)  (Djebeil) Sultan Abbakar bin Ismail
DAR-FOR
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Sultanate of DARFUR [rebellion]  (Reheid El Berdi)Sultanat DARFOR : سلطنت دارفور (ar) + Sultanat DAR FÒÒR : سلطنت دارفور (fvr)  (Reheid El Berdi) Sultan Sanin al-Husayn
DAR-KUTI
De facto Semi-Independent
Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele)Sultanat de DAR EL-KOUTI (fr) + Sultanat DAR AL-KUTI : سلطنة دار الكوتي (ar) + Sultanat DAR AL KOUTI : سلطنة دار الكوتي (rou)  (N´Délé) Sultan Muhammad al-Senussi
DARFUR
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Emirate of DARFUR : Sultanate of Dar Fur  (El Fasher)Imarat DAR FOR : الإمارات للدار الفراء (fvr) + Imarat DAR FUR : الإمارات للدار الفراء (ar)  (Al-Fashar) Sultan Ali Dinar bin Zakariya
DERVISHLAND
De facto Independent
DERVISH State  (Ilig)Dawlada DARAAWIISH (so) + Dawlat DARAWISH : دولة الدراويش (ar)  (Illig) Muhammad Abd Allah Al-Hasan the Mad Mullah
DRAA
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Emirate of BRAKNA [rebellion]  (Smara)Emirat BRAKNA : الإمارة براكنة (ar)  (Es-Smara) Sheikh Mahl Aynin
EGYPT
De facto Semi-Independent
Khediviate of EGYPT [British Occupation under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Cairo a + Alexandria r)Khedivate of EGYPT (en) + MISIR Hidiviyet-i : میصیر حیضیوییهتی (ota) + Khedivyat al-MISRIYYAH : الخديوية المصرية (ar)  (El Kâhire + Iskindireyya) Khedive Abbas II Hilmi Pasha
GELEDI
De facto Independent
Sultanate of THE GELEDI  (Geledi)Saldanadda GELEDI (so) + Saltanat JALADI : سلالة غوبرون (ar)  (Jaladi) Sultan Osman Ahmed
GOBAD
De facto Semi-Independent
Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne)GOBAQAD Soltaana (aa) + Sultanat de GOBA´AD (fr) + Sultanat DEBNÉ (am)  (Debné) Sultan Unda Loitah Anfare
HOGGAR
De facto Semi-Independent
KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa)Confédération touarègue du HOGGAR (fr) + Kel UHAGGAR : ⴽⴻⵍ ⴰⵃⴰⴳⴳⴰⵔ (thv)  (Abalessa) Amenokal Musa ag Amastan
KELAFO
De facto Semi-Independent
Ajuran Sultanate of KELAFO  (Au Calif)Suldaanadda QALAAFE (so) + Saltanat QALAFO : سلطنة كيلافو (ar)  (Qalaafe) Sultan Olol Dinle
KONG
De facto Semi-Independent
Wattara Empire of KONG  (Kong)Empire OUATTARA de Kong (fr) + Fama KONG : کونگ بادشاہت (dyu) + Fama KONG (sef)  (Kong) Emperor Pinntie Ba
KONGO
De facto Semi-Independent
Kingdom of CONGO Vassal of Portugal  (Saint Salvador of the Congo)Reino do CONGO (pt) + KONGO dya Ntotila (kwy)  (São Salvador do Congo) King Pedro VII Afonso Mbemba
LIBERIA
De facto Independent
Republic of LIBERIA  (Monrovia)Republic of LIBERIA (en)  (Monrovia) President Arthur Barclay
MAJERTEENIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Harti Sultanate of MAJERTEEN [Italian Protectorate]  (Bargal + Alula)Sultanato della MIGIURTINIA (it) + Saldanadda MAJEERTEEN (so) + Saltanat MAJERTAIN : سلطنة ماجرتين (ar)  (Baargaal + Aluula) Sultan Uthman III bin Mahamud
MOROCCO
De facto Semi-Independent
Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO [Alawite Sultanate of Morocco]  (Rabat ar + Fez hlr + Meknes hr + Marrakesh hr)Ad-Dawlat al-MAGHRIBIYA ash-Sharifa : الدولة المغربية الشريفة (ar)  (Ar-Ribat + Fas + Miknas + Marrakish) Sultan Mulay Abdelaziz IV
MOROCCO-TAZA
De facto IndependentRebellion
Moroccan Sultanate of TAZA [Sultanate of Morocco in rebellion]  (Taza)Saltanat al-MAGRIB - Saltanat Taza : سلطنة المغرب - سلطنة تازة (ar) + L-MAGRIB : Taza : ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ - ⵜⴰⵣⴰ (rif)  (Taza) Sultan Muhammad V Rogui Bou Hmara
OBBIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of OBBIA [Italian Protectorate]  (Obbia + Gallacaio)Sultanato di OBBIA (it) + Saldanadda HOBYO (so) + Sultanat HOBYAA : سلطنة هوبيو (ar)  (Hobyaa + Gaalkacyo) Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid
SENUSSIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Independent Senussi Sheikhdom of CYRENAICA [British Sphere of Influence on Zuwayya Tribe]  (Kufra)Mashaykat AS-SANUSIYA : مشيخة السنوسية (ar) + SIRENAYKA (ota)  (Al Kafrah) Sheikh Sidi Ahmed Sharif al-Senussi
TIBESTI
De facto Semi-Independent
Kingdom of the Teda Confederation of TIBESTI [French Zone of Influence]  (Zouar)Mai TIBESTI : تبستي (tuq) + TIBASTI : تبستي (ar)  (Zouar) Derdo Guetty I
TRIPOLITANIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Vilayet of TRIPOLITANIA [Tripoli Regency under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tripoli of Barbary)Vilâyet-i TRÂBLUS GÂRP : ولايت طرابلس غرب‎ (ota) + Wilayat TARABULUS AL-GHARB : ولاية طرابلس الغرب (ar)  (Trablus-i Garb) Recep Pasha
TUNISIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Autonomous Tunisian Beylicate under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tunis)Régence de TUNIS : Protectorat français de la Régence tunisienne (fr) + Al-Ḥimāyah al-Fransiyyah fī TŪNIS : الحماية الفرنسية في تونس (ar)  (Tunus) Muhammad V An-Nasir Bey
WADAI
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of WADAI  (Abesher)Kolak WADA´I : الوداي (mde) + Sultanat WADDĀY : سلطنة الواداي (ar)  (Abeshr) Sultan Muhammad Daud Murra bin Yusuf
ZANZIBAR
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of ZANZIBAR [British Protectorate]  (Zanzibar Stone Town)Sultanate of ZANZIBAR (en) + Sultanat wa ZANZIBAR (sw) + Sultanat ZANZIBAR : سلطنة زنجبار (ar)  (Zanzibar Stone Town) Sultan Sidi Ali II bin Hamud

34 Polities (0 member of the International Community)


Rebel Entities & Governments in Exile


BIJAGOS
Rebellion
Autonomous Islands of BIJAGOS  (Bubaque)Ilhas dos BIJAGÓS (pt)  (Bubaque) Chief of Bijagos
BIMAL
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
BIMAL Tribe Resistance of the Benadir Coast  (Merere + (Merca))Beesha BIIMAAL (so) + Banu JAMAL : بنو جمال (ar) + Tribù dei BIMAL (it)  (Merère + (Merca)) Sheikh Abdi Abikar Gafle
BUNDALAND
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Kingdom of BUNDALAND  (Kangamba)Chuundi ca MBUNDA (mck) + Reino dos BUNDAS (pt)  (Kalyamba) King Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova
DAR-FOR
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Sultanate of DARFUR [rebellion]  (Reheid El Berdi)Sultanat DARFOR : سلطنت دارفور (ar) + Sultanat DAR FÒÒR : سلطنت دارفور (fvr)  (Reheid El Berdi) Sultan Sanin al-Husayn
DARFUR
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Emirate of DARFUR : Sultanate of Dar Fur  (El Fasher)Imarat DAR FOR : الإمارات للدار الفراء (fvr) + Imarat DAR FUR : الإمارات للدار الفراء (ar)  (Al-Fashar) Sultan Ali Dinar bin Zakariya
DRAA
De facto Semi-IndependentRebellion
Emirate of BRAKNA [rebellion]  (Smara)Emirat BRAKNA : الإمارة براكنة (ar)  (Es-Smara) Sheikh Mahl Aynin
DUME
Rebellion
Omvang and Makaa Rebellion in DUME District  (Dume)Bezirk DUME (de)  (Dume) Omvang and Makaa Rebels
FRANSMANS
Rebellion
Namaqua Captaincy of Simon Kooper Namas : FRANSMAN NAMAS  (Amber-Po + Gochas)Kapitänsamt Simon Kooper : FRANSMAN-NAMA (de) + Kapteinskap Fransmanne : KHARAKOEN (af) + Ma |Gai I !Kham Dan !Khar´khoen ||Aes : !Khara-gai-khom ǃGOMXAB (naq)  (Amber-Po + Gochas) Captain Simon Kooper
MAJI-MAJI
Rebellion
MAJI MAJI Rebellion  (Matumbi)Jujila : JWIYILA (sw) + MAJI-MAJI-Aufstand (de)  (Matumbi) Prophet Kinjikitile Bokero Ngwale
MOROCCO-TAZA
De facto IndependentRebellion
Moroccan Sultanate of TAZA [Sultanate of Morocco in rebellion]  (Taza)Saltanat al-MAGRIB - Saltanat Taza : سلطنة المغرب - سلطنة تازة (ar) + L-MAGRIB : Taza : ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ - ⵜⴰⵣⴰ (rif)  (Taza) Sultan Muhammad V Rogui Bou Hmara
NAMAQUALAND
Rebellion
NAMAQUA Chiefdoms [rebellion]  (Schans Vlakte g + Omaheke Desert z)Koningskap NAMAKWA (naq)  (ǁKhauxaǃnas + Omaheke) Capitain Simon Kooper
NOOGAL
Rebellion
Somali State of NOOGAL [rebellion]  (Eyl)Dawladda NOOGAL (so) + Dawlat NŪGHĀL : نوغال‎ (ar)  (Eeyl) Muhammad Abd Allah Al-Hasan the Mad Mullah
VELDSCHOENDRAGER
Rebellion
Namaqua Clan of VELDSCHOENDRAGER  (Schans Vlakte)Stamm FELDSCHUHTRÄGER (de)  (Khauxanas)
WITBOOIS
Rebellion
Namaqua Oorlam Captaincy of WITBOOI NAMAS  (Omaheke Desert)Kapitänsamt WITBOOI-NAMA (de) + WITBOOI Nama Oorlams Kapteinskap (oor) + WITBOOI Nama Orlaam Kapteinskap (af) + !Uri-gamn ǀKhobesin : !Uri-gamn ǀKhobesin : ǀKHOWESIN (naq)  (Omaheke) Captain Isaak Witbooi

14 Rebel Entities


Protectorates & Mandates


ADRER
De facto Semi-Independent
Emirate of ADRAR [Spanish Protectorate]  (Atar)Emirat ADERER : إميرات آدرار (ar) + Emirato de ADRAR (es)  (Atar)
AGADEZ
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of AGADEZ [Tuareg Berber Confederation of the Sultanate of Air Vassal of France]  (Agades)Sultanat d´AGADEZ (fr) + Kel Ayr : KEL AYAR - ⵅⴻⵍ ⵄⵢⴰⵔ (thz)  (Agadès)
BRITISH EAST AFRICA
BRITISH EAST AFRICA Protectorate  (Nairobi)BRITISH EAST AFRICA Protectorate (en)  (Nairobi)
BRITISH NIGERIA
Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria : BRITISH NIGERIA  (Calabar a + Lagos a + Lokoja a)Protectorates of Northern and Southern NIGERIA (en)  (Calabar + Lagos + Lokoja)
BRITISH SOMALILAND
BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate  (Berbera)BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate (en)  (Berbera)
DAR MASALIT
De facto Semi-Independent
DAR MASALIT Sultanate [under Darfuri Suzerainty]  (Jebeil)Sultanat DAR MASALIT : سلطنة دار المساليت (mls) + Sultanat DAR AL-MASALIT : سلطنة دار المساليت (ar)  (Djebeil)
DAR-KUTI
De facto Semi-Independent
Runga Sultanate of DAR AL-KUTI [French Protectorate]  (Ndele)Sultanat de DAR EL-KOUTI (fr) + Sultanat DAR AL-KUTI : سلطنة دار الكوتي (ar) + Sultanat DAR AL KOUTI : سلطنة دار الكوتي (rou)  (N´Délé)
EGYPT
De facto Semi-Independent
Khediviate of EGYPT [British Occupation under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Cairo a + Alexandria r)Khedivate of EGYPT (en) + MISIR Hidiviyet-i : میصیر حیضیوییهتی (ota) + Khedivyat al-MISRIYYAH : الخديوية المصرية (ar)  (El Kâhire + Iskindireyya)
GAMBIA
GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate  (Bathurst)GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Bathurst)
GERMAN CAMEROON
German Crown Land of CAMEROON [German Protectorate]  (Buea)Deutsche Kolonie KAMERUN : Schutzgebiet Kamerun (de)  (Buea)
GOBAD
De facto Semi-Independent
Afar Sultanate of GOBAD [Tributary of Aussa]  (Debne)GOBAQAD Soltaana (aa) + Sultanat de GOBA´AD (fr) + Sultanat DEBNÉ (am)  (Debné)
HOGGAR
De facto Semi-Independent
KEL AHAGGAR Tuareg Confederation [under French Suzerainty]  (Abalessa)Confédération touarègue du HOGGAR (fr) + Kel UHAGGAR : ⴽⴻⵍ ⴰⵃⴰⴳⴳⴰⵔ (thv)  (Abalessa)
KENYA COAST
KENYA Protectorate [Coastal Domains of Zanzibar]  (Mombasa)KENYA Protectorate (en)  (Mombasa)
KONGO
De facto Semi-Independent
Kingdom of CONGO Vassal of Portugal  (Saint Salvador of the Congo)Reino do CONGO (pt) + KONGO dya Ntotila (kwy)  (São Salvador do Congo)
MAJERTEENIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Harti Sultanate of MAJERTEEN [Italian Protectorate]  (Bargal + Alula)Sultanato della MIGIURTINIA (it) + Saldanadda MAJEERTEEN (so) + Saltanat MAJERTAIN : سلطنة ماجرتين (ar)  (Baargaal + Aluula)
MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES
French Colony of MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Dzaoudzi)Colonie française de MAYOTTE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
MOROCCO
De facto Semi-Independent
Sharifi Empire of MOROCCO [Alawite Sultanate of Morocco]  (Rabat ar + Fez hlr + Meknes hr + Marrakesh hr)Ad-Dawlat al-MAGHRIBIYA ash-Sharifa : الدولة المغربية الشريفة (ar)  (Ar-Ribat + Fas + Miknas + Marrakish)
OBBIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of OBBIA [Italian Protectorate]  (Obbia + Gallacaio)Sultanato di OBBIA (it) + Saldanadda HOBYO (so) + Sultanat HOBYAA : سلطنة هوبيو (ar)  (Hobyaa + Gaalkacyo)
SIERRA LEONE
SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate  (Freetown)SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Freetown)
TRIPOLITANIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Vilayet of TRIPOLITANIA [Tripoli Regency under Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tripoli of Barbary)Vilâyet-i TRÂBLUS GÂRP : ولايت طرابلس غرب‎ (ota) + Wilayat TARABULUS AL-GHARB : ولاية طرابلس الغرب (ar)  (Trablus-i Garb)
TUNISIA
De facto Semi-Independent
Regency of TUNIS [French Protectorate of the Autonomous Tunisian Beylicate under nominal Ottoman Suzerainty]  (Tunis)Régence de TUNIS : Protectorat français de la Régence tunisienne (fr) + Al-Ḥimāyah al-Fransiyyah fī TŪNIS : الحماية الفرنسية في تونس (ar)  (Tunus)
ZANZIBAR
De facto Semi-Independent
Sultanate of ZANZIBAR [British Protectorate]  (Zanzibar Stone Town)Sultanate of ZANZIBAR (en) + Sultanat wa ZANZIBAR (sw) + Sultanat ZANZIBAR : سلطنة زنجبار (ar)  (Zanzibar Stone Town)

22 Protected Entities


Federated & Regionalised Polities


ABEOKUTA
Federated
City-State of ABEOKUTA  (Abeokuta)State of ABEOKUTA (en) + Alake ABEOKUTA (yor)  (Abeokuta)
AGADES
Federated
Sultanate of AGADEZ  (Agades)Sultanat d´AGADEZ (fr) + Saltanat AGADES : ⵄⵖⵄⴹEⵚ (thz)  (Agadès)
AIR
Federated
AIR Region  (Arlit)Région de l´AÏR (fr)  (Arlit)
ANGOLA
Portuguese Crown Colony of ANGOLA  (Saint Paul of Loanda)Colónia Portuguesa de ANGOLA (pt)  (São Paulo de Luanda)
ANGOSHE
Federated
Makua Sultanate of ANGOSHE  (Angoshe)Sultanato de ANGOXE (pt) + Sultanat ANGOSHE (eko)  (Angoxe)
ANGRA
Autonomous District of ANGRA DO HEROISMO [Overseas District of Central Azores Group]  (Angra)Distrito Autónomo de ANGRA DO HEROÍSMO (pt)  (Angra do Heroísmo)
ANJOUAN
Federated
Sultanate of ANJOUAN [French Protectorate]  (Mutsamudu)Sultanat d´ANJOUAN (fr) + Sultani cha NDZUWANI (wni) + Sultanat N´ZUANI : سلطنة نزواني (ar)  (Moutsamoudou)
BAHR EL GAZAL
Federated
BAHR EL GAZAL Province Division : Directorate of Bahr El Gazal  (Wow)Mudiria BAHR EL-GHAZAL : مديرية بحر الغزال (ar) + Mudirate of BAHR EL GAZAL (en)  (Waw)
BAROTZILAND-NORTH-WESTERN RHODESIA
Federated
British Protectorate of BAROTZILAND-NORTH-WESTERN RHODESIA  (Kalomo)British Protectorate of BAROTZILAND-NORTH-WESTERN RHODESIA (en)  (Kalomo)
BASUTOLAND
Federated
Colony of BASUTOLAND [British Residency Commission for Basutoland]  (Maseru)Colony of BASUTOLAND : British Residency Commission for Basutoland (en)  (Maseru)
BECHUANALAND
Federated
British Protectorate of BECHUANALAND  ((Mafeking))BECHUANALAND Protectorate (en)  ((Mafeking))
BERBER-SHENDI
Federated
BERBER SHENDI Province Division : Berber Directorate  (Berber + Shendi)Mudiria BERBER : مديرية بربر (ar) + Mudirate of BERBER SHENDI (en)  (Berber + Shendi)
BLUE NILE
Federated
BLUE NILE Province Division : Blue Nile Directorate  (Wad Medani)Mudiria AN-NYL AL-AZRAQ : مديرية النيل الأزرق (ar) + Mudirate of BLUE NILE (en)  (Wad Medani)
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA
Federated
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA Protectorate  (Zomba)BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA Protectorate (en)  (Zomba)
BRITISH GAMBIA
BRITISH GAMBIA Colony  (Bathurst)BRITISH GAMBIA Colony (en)  (Bathurst)
BRITISH SIERRA LEONE
SIERRA LEONE Protectorate  ((Freetown))SIERRA LEONE Protectorate (en)  ((Freetown))
CAPE
Federated
Self-Governement of CAPE Colony  (Cape Town)CAPE Colony (en)  (Cape Town)
CHAHI
Federated
Teda Kingdom of NORTH-EAST TIBESTI  (Bardai)Derdï CHAHÏ (tuq)  (Bardaï)
CHIDIMA
Federated
Karanga Kingdom of CHIDIMA  (Tete)Reino de CHIDIMA (pt) + Mwene a CHEDIMA (sn)  (Tete)
DAHOMEY
Federated
DAHOMEY Colony  (Abomey [a])Colonie du DAHOMEY (fr)  (Abomey)
DONGOLA
Federated
DONGOLA Province Division : Dongola Directorate  (Donggola)Mudiria DONGOLA : مديرية دنقلا (ar) + Mudirate of DONGOLA (en)  (Dongola)
EGBALAND
Federated
EGBA United Government [British Protectorate]  (Abeokuta)EGBA United Government (en) + Alake ABEOKUTA (yor)  (Abeokuta)
FERNANDO POO
Spanish Colony of FERNANDO POO  (Santa Isabel)Colonia española de FERNANDO PÓO (es)  (Santa Isabel)
FREETOWN
SIERRA LEONE Colony  (Freetown)SIERRA LEONE Colony (en)  (Freetown)
FRENCH GUINEA
Federated
FRENCH GUINEA Colony  (Konakry)Colonie de GUINÉE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Konakry)
FUNCHAL
FUNCHAL Overseas District of Portugal : Madeira and Porto Santo  (Funchal)Distrito do FUNCHAL : Madeira e Porto Santo (pt)  (Funchal)
GEZEIRA
Federated
GEZEIRA Province Division : Gezira Directorate  (Wad Medani)Mudiria AL-GEZEIRA : مديرية الجزيرة (ar) + Mudirate of EL GEZIRA (en)  (Wad Medani)
GREAT COMORO
Federated
French Sultanate of GREAT COMORO  (Moroni)Sultanat de la GRANDE COMORE (fr) + Sultani Tibe wa NGAZIDJA (zdj) + Sultanat AL-QOMOR AL-KUBRAA : سلطنة القمر الكبرى (ar)  (Moroni)
GUETTY
Federated
Teda Kingdom of SOUTH-WEST TIBESTI  (Zouar)Derdï GUÉTTY (tuq)  (Zouar)
HALFA
Federated
HALFA Province Division : Halfa Directorate  (Wadi Halfa)Mudiria HALFA : مديرية حلفا (ar) + Mudirate of HALFA (en)  (Wadi Halfa)
HORTA
District of HORTA [Overseas District of Western Azores Group]  (Horta)Distrito da HORTA (pt)  (Horta)
HUMBE
HUMBE Region  (Vila Pereira de Eca)Região do HUMBE (pt)  (Vila Pereira de Eça)
INNER GAMBIA
GAMBIA Protectorate  (Brikama)GAMBIA Protectorate (en)  (Brikama)
IVORY COAST
Federated
French Colony of IVORY COAST  (Bingerville [a])Colonie française de CÔTE D´IVOIRE (fr)  (Bingerville)
KASANZE
Federated
Luba-Sanga State of KASANZE  (Kasanzi)Estado de KASSANJE (pt) + Yaka KASANZE (sng)  (Kasanye)
KASSALA
Federated
KASSALA Province Division : Kassala Directorate  (Kassala)Mudiria KESSALA : مديرية كسلا (ar) + Mudirate of KASSALA (en)  (Kessala)
KHARTOUM
Federated
KHARTOUM Province Division : Directorate of Khartoum  (Khartoum)Mudiria AL-KHURTUM : مديرية الخرطوم (ar) + Mudirate of KHARTOUM (en)  (Khartoum)
KITANGONYA
Federated
KITANGONYA Sheikhdom  (Nacala)Jequedo QUITANGONHA (pt) + Sheikh KITANGONYA (mgh)  (Nacala)
KORDOFAN
Federated
KORDOFAN Province Division : Kordofan Directorate  (El Obeid)Mudiria KORDOFAN : مديرية كردفان (ar) + Mudirate of KORDOFAN (en)  (El Obeid)
LOURENZO MARQUES
Federated
Portuguese Colony of LOURENZO MARQUES  (Lourenzo Marques)Colônia portuguesa de LOURENÇO MARQUES (pt)  (Lourenço Marques)
MAURITANIA-SENEGAL
Federated
Region of MAURITANIA-SENEGAL  (Saint Louis of Senegal)Région de MAURITANIE-SÉNÉGAL (fr)  (Saint-Louis du Sénégal)
MAYOTTE
Federated
MAYOTTE Protectorate  (Dzaoudzi)Protectorat de MAYOTTE (fr) + Jezirah MAYUT : جزيرة مايوت (ar) + Kisiwa cha MAORÉ (swb)  (Dzaoudzi)
MONGALLA
Federated
MONGALLA Province : Mongalla Directorate  (Mongalla)Mudiria MONGALLA : مديرية مونغالا (ar) + Mudirate of MONGALLA (en)  (Mongalla)
MOZAMBIQUE
Federated
MOZAMBIQUE Company´s Territories of Manica and Sofala  (Beira)Territorios de Manica e Sofála da Companhia de MOÇAMBIQUE (pt)  (Beira)
NATAL
Federated
Self-Governement of the Colony of NATAL  (Pietermaritzburg)Colony of NATAL (en)  (Pietermaritzburg)
NIGER
Federated
NIGER Military Territory [French Military Autonomous Territory of Zinder]  (Niamey)Territoire militaire autonome français de ZINDER (fr)  (Niamey)
NORTH-EASTERN RHODESIA
Federated
Protectorate of NORTH-EASTERN RHODESIA  (Fort Jameson)Protectorate of NORTH-EASTERN RHODESIA (en)  (Fort Jameson)
NORTHERN NIGERIA
Federated
British Protectorate of NORTHERN NIGERIA  (Lokoja)British Protectorate of NORTHERN NIGERIA (en)  (Lokoja)
NYASSA
Federated
NYASSA Company of Cape Delgado and Nyassa  (Porto Amelia)Territórios de Cabo Delgado e Niassa da Companhia do NIASSA (pt)  (Porto Amélia)
PONTA DELGADA
Autonomous District of PONTA DELGADA [Overseas District of Eastern Azores Group]  (Ponta Delgada)Distrito Autónomo de PONTA DELGADA (pt)  (Ponta Delgada)
PORTUGUESE MOZAMBIQUE
Federated
MOZAMBIQUE Colony  (Nampula)Colônia de MOÇAMBIQUE (pt)  (Nampula)
PRINCE
Municipality of PRINCE  (Saint Anthony)Concelho de PRÍNCIPE (pt)  (Santo António)
RED SEA
Federated
RED SEA Province Division : Red Sea Directorate  (Port Sudan + Suakin)Mudiria AL-BAHR AL-AHMAR : موديريات دي لا مر روج (ar) + Mudirate of RED SEA (en)  (Port Sudan + Suakin)
RHODESIA
Federated
RHODESIA Protectorate  (Salisbury)RHODESIA Protectorate (en)  (Salisbury)
SAINT THOMAS
Municipality of SAINT THOMAS  (Saint Thomas)Concelho de SÃO THOMÉ (pt)  (São Thomé)
SANKUL
Federated
SANKUL Sheikhdom  (Mozambique Island)Jequedo SANCUL (pt) + Sheikh ya SANKUL (sw)  (Ilha de Moçambique)
SENNAR
Federated
SENNAR Province Division : Sennar Directorate  (Sennar)Mudiria SINNAR : مديرية سنار (ar) + Mudirate of SENNAR (en)  (Sinnar)
SOUTHERN NIGERIA
Federated
Colony and Protectorate of SOUTHERN NIGERIA  (Calabar)Colony and Protectorate of SOUTHERN NIGERIA (en)  (Calabar)
SOUTHERN RHODESIA
Federated
Protectorate of SOUTHERN RHODESIA  (Salisbury)Protectorate of SOUTHERN RHODESIA (en)  (Salisbury)
SWAZILAND
Federated
British Protectorate of SWAZILAND [British Residency Commission for Swaziland Colony]  (Mbabane [a][j] + Lobamba [l][r])British Protectorate of SWAZILAND (en)  (Mbabane + Lobamba)
TENERE
Federated
TENERE Zone  (Bilma)Zone du TÉNÉRÉ (fr)  (Bilma)
UMBUNDU
Ovimbundu States of UMBUNDU  (Bailundo)Estados MBUNDU DEL SUR (pt) + Ovimbundu : UMBUNDU (umb)  (Bailundo)
UPPER NILE
Federated
UPPER NILE Province Division : Upper Nile Directorate  (Kodok)Mudiria A´ALI AN-NIL : مديرية أعالي النيل (ar) + Mudirate of UPPER NILE (en)  (Kodok)
UPPER SENEGAL AND NIGER
Federated
UPPER SENEGAL AND NIGER Colony  (Kayes)Colonie du HAUT-SÉNÉGAL-ET-NIGER (fr)  (Kayes)
WHITE NILE
Federated
WHITE NILE Province Division : White Nile Directorate  (Duem)Mudiria AN-NIL AL-ABYAD : مديرية النيل الأبيض (ar) + Mudirate of WHITE NILE (en)  (Al Duem)
ZAMBESIA
Federated
ZAMBESIA Company  (Quilimane)Companhia de ZAMBÉSIA (pt)  (Quelimane)

66 Federated or Regionalized Polities


Territories & Dependencies


ADJACENT ISLANDS
Adjacent Islands of MADEIRA PORTO SANTO AND AZORES  (Funchal + Porto Santo + Ponta Delgada)Ilhas Adjacentes da MADEIRA PORTO SANTO E AÇORES (pt)  (Funchal + Porto Santo + Ponta Delgada)
AGWE
French-German Colonial Authority on the Ewe State of AGWE  (Agwe)État d´AGOUÉ (fr) + Staat AGOUÉ (de) + AGWE (ewe)  (Agoué)
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN
Governorate-General of the Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN  (Khartoum)Condominium of ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN (en) + Imarat AS-SUDAN AL-ANGELAZY AL-MASRI : عمارات السودان الإنجليزي المصري (ar)  (Khartoum)
ASCENSION ISLAND
British Territory of ASCENSION ISLAND  (Georgetown)British Territory of ASCENSION ISLAND (en)  (Georgetown)
BRITISH EAST AFRICA
BRITISH EAST AFRICA Protectorate  (Nairobi)BRITISH EAST AFRICA Protectorate (en)  (Nairobi)
BRITISH NIGERIA
Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria : BRITISH NIGERIA  (Calabar [a] + Lagos [a] + Lokoja [a])Protectorates of Northern and Southern NIGERIA (en)  (Calabar + Lagos + Lokoja)
BRITISH SOMALILAND
BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate  (Berbera)BRITISH SOMALILAND Protectorate (en)  (Berbera)
CAPE VERDE ISLANDS
Portuguese Colony of CAPE VERDE ISLANDS  (Praia)Colônia das ILHAS DO CABO VERDE (pt)  (Vila da Praia)
CASABLANCA
Province of CASABLANCA [French Zone of Influence]  (Casablanca)Wilaya DAR EL-BEIDA : ولاية الدار البيضاء (ar)  (Dar El-Beida)
ERITREA
Italian Colony of ERITREA  (Mitsiwa)Colonia italiana dell´ERITREA (it)  (Massaua)
FRENCH ALGERIA
Governorate-General of ALGERIA  (Algiers [a])Gouvernorat-général de l´ALGÉRIE (fr)  (Alger)
FRENCH CONGO
FRENCH CONGO Colony  ((Libreville))Colonie du CONGO FRANÇAIS (fr)  ((Libreville))
FRENCH SOMALI COAST
French Somaliland Colony : FRENCH SOMALI COAST  (Jibuti)Colonie de la CÔTE FRANÇAISE DES SOMALIS (fr)  (Djibouti)
FRENCH WEST AFRICA
Federation of FRENCH WEST AFRICA  (Goree + Dakar)Fédération de l´AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE FRANÇAISE (fr)  (Gorée + Dakar)
GABOON
GABOON Colony  (Libreville)Colonie du GABON (fr)  (Libreville)
GALLA LAND
Ethiopian Territory of GALLA LAND  ((Moyale))GALLE Mereti : ጋላ መሬት (am)  ((Moyaalee))
GAMBIA
GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate  (Bathurst)GAMBIA Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Bathurst)
GERMAN BAROTZILAND
GERMAN BAROTSELAND Territory  (Itenge)DEUTSCH-BAROTSELAND Gebiet (de)  (Iteenge)
GERMAN CAMEROON
German Crown Land of CAMEROON [German Protectorate]  (Buea)Deutsche Kolonie KAMERUN : Schutzgebiet Kamerun (de)  (Buea)
GERMAN EAST AFRICA
GERMAN EAST AFRICA Colony  (Daressalam)DEUTSCH OSTAFRIKA-Kolonie (de)  (Daressalam)
GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA
GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA Crown Colony  (Windhuk)Kronkolonie von DEUTSCH-SÜDWESTAFRIKA (de)  (Windhuk)
GERMAN TOGO
German Colony of TOGO  (Lome)Deutsche Kolonie TOGO (de)  (Lome)
GOLD COAST AND DEPENDENCIES
Crown Colony of the GOLD COAST and its Dependencies  (Akra)Crown Colony of the GOLD COAST and its Dependencies (en)  (Akra)
GULF OF GUINEA
Spanish Territories in THE GULF OF GUINEA  (Santa Isabel [a])Territorios españoles del GOLFO DE GUINEA (es)  (Santa Isabel)
ILLUBABOR
ILLUBABOR Province [British Zone of Influence administered by Shoa]  (Gorie)ILLUBABER Gizati : ኢሉባቦር ግዛት (am)  (Gore)
ISLAND OF MALTA AND DEPENDENCIES
British Crown Colony of the ISLAND OF MALTA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES  (Valletta [a] + Casal Attard [r] + Siggiewi [s])British Crown Colony of the ISLAND OF MALTA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Valletta + Casal Attard + Città Ferdinand)
ITALIAN SOMALILAND
Colony of ITALIAN SOMALILAND  (Mogadishu)Colonia di SOMALIA ITALIANA (it)  (Mogadiscio)
JIMMA ABA JIFAR
Autonomous Giba Sultanate of JIMMA ABA JIFAR  (Jimma)Moti JIMA ´ABA JAFAR : ጅማ (am) + Moti JIMA ´ABA JAFAR : ጅማ (jnj) + Moti JIMMA ABA JIFAR (kbr) + Moti JIMMA ABA JIFAR (om)  (Jima)
JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND
French Leased Dependency of JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND  (Saint Christophe)Dépendance française de l´ÎLE JUAN DE NOVA (fr)  (Saint-Christophe)
KATANGA
Special Committee of KATANGA  (Kambove)Comité spécial du KATANGA (fr)  (Kambové)
KENYA COAST
KENYA Protectorate [Coastal Domains of Zanzibar]  (Mombasa)KENYA Protectorate (en)  (Mombasa)
LADO ENCLAVE
Territory of LADO ENCLAVE [Rejaf Enclave]  (Rejaf)Territoire de l´ENCLAVE DE LADO (fr)  (Rédjaf)
LOMAMI
LOMAMI Company  (Opala)Compagnie du LOMAMI (fr)  (Opala)
MADAGASCAR AND DEPENDENCIES
Governorate-General of the FRENCH MADAGASCAR Colony  (Tananarive)Colonie française de MADAGASCAR (fr)  (Tananarive)
MAURITIUS AND DEPENDENCIES
British Colony of THE MAURITIUS AND ITS DEPENDENCIES  (Port Louis [a] + Reduit in Moka [r])British Colony of THE MAURITIUS AND ITS DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Louis + Reduit)
MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES
French Colony of MAYOTTE AND DEPENDENCIES  (Dzaoudzi)Colonie française de MAYOTTE ET DÉPENDANCES (fr)  (Dzaoudzi)
MBAMU ISLAND
Neutral Zone of MBAMU ISLAND  (Mbamu)Zone neutre de M´BAMOU (fr)  (M´bamou)
NORTH AFRICA
Spanish General Captaincy of NORTH AFRICA  (Ceuta [a] + Melilla [a])Capitanía General de las Posesiones de ÁFRICA DEL NORTE (es)  (Ceuta + Melilla)
OGADEN
Ethiopian Territory of OGADEN  (Deghabur)Ye´OGADENI Kilili : የኦጋዴን ክልል (am)  (Degeh Bur)
ORANGE RIVER
ORANGE RIVER Colony  (Bloemfontein)ORANGE RIVER Colony (en)  (Bloemfontein)
PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA
Governorate-General of the PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA Colony [Portuguese Mozambique Colony]  (Lourenzo Marques)Colônia de ÁFRICA ORIENTAL PORTUGUESA (pt)  (Lourenço Marques)
PORTUGUESE GUINEA
Colony of PORTUGUESE GUINEA  (Bolama)Colônia da GUINÉ PORTUGUESA (pt)  (Bolama)
PORTUGUESE WEST AFRICA
Governorate-General of the Crown Colony of PORTUGUESE WEST AFRICA  (Saint Paul of Loanda)Colônia de AFRICA DEL OESTE PORTUGUÊS (pt)  (São Paulo de Luanda)
REUNION
French Colony of REUNION  (Saint Denis of the Reunion)Colonie française de la RÉUNION (fr)  (Saint-Denis de la Réunion)
SAINT HELENA
British Crown Colony of SAINT HELENA  (Jamestown)British Crown Colony of SAINT HELENA (en)  (Jamestown)
SAINT HELENA DOMAIN
French National Domain on SAINT HELENA ISLAND [Longwood House and Valley of the Tomb]  (Longwood House)Domaine national de SAINTE-HÉLÈNE (fr)  (Longwood House)
SAINT THOMAS AND PRINCES ISLAND
Portuguese Crown Colony of SAINT THOMAS AND PRINCES ISLAND  (Saint Thomas)Colônia da coroa portuguesa de SÃO THOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE (pt)  (São Thomé)
SALAGA
SALAGA Area [German-British Neutral Zone of Northern States]  (Salaga)SALAGA-Gebiet (de) + SALAGA Area (en)  (Salaga)
SARRA TRIANGLE
Anglo-Egyptian Territory of SARRA TRIANGLE  (Matan As-Sarra)Territory of SARRA TRIANGLE (en) + Muthalath AS-SARRA : مثلث السرة (ar)  (Ma´tan as-Sarra)
SEYCHELLES ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES
British Crown Colony of SEYCHELLES ISLANDS AND DEPENDENCIES  (Port Victoria)British Crown Colony of SEYCHELLE ISLAND AND DEPENDENCIES (en)  (Port Victoria)
SIERRA LEONE
SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate  (Freetown)SIERRA LEONE Colony and Protectorate (en)  (Freetown)
SOUTHERN AFRICA
High Commission in and for South Africa : High Commission Territories of SOUTHERN AFRICA  (Cape Town)High Commission in and for South Africa : High Commission Territories of SOUTHERN AFRICA (en)  (Cape Town)
SOUTHERN LIBYAN DESERT
SOUTHERN LIBYAN DESERT Area  (-)SOUTHERN LIBYAN DESERT Area (en) + Mintaqat as-SAHRA´ AL-JANUBIAT AL-LIBIYA : منطقة الصحراء الجنوبية الليبية (ar)  (-)
SPANISH WEST AFRICA
Territories of SPANISH WEST AFRICA  (Las Palmas of Great Canary)Territorios del ÁFRICA OCCIDENTAL ESPAÑOLA (es)  (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
SUEZ CANAL ZONE
SUEZ CANAL Demilitarized Zone [Universal Suez Ship Canal Company]  (Port Suez + (Alexandria))Universal Suez Ship Canal Company : SUEZ CANAL ZONE (en) + Compagnie universelle du Canal maritime de Suez : ZONE DU CANAL DE SUEZ (fr)  (Port Suez + (Alexandria))
TANGANYIKA
TANGANYIKA Concessions  (Pweto)TANGANYIKA Concessions (en)  (Pweto)
TIGRE
Governorate-General of TIGRE  (Mekele)Gizati TƏGRAY : ግዛት ትግራይ (gez) + TIGRĀY Gizati : ትግራይ ግዛት (am)  (Mek´elē)
TRANSVAAL
British Colony of the TRANSVAAL  (Pretoria)British Colony of the TRANSVAAL (en) + TRANSVAALkolonie (nl)  (Pretoria)
TRISTAN DA CUNHA
British Territory of TRISTAN DA CUNHA Group of Islands  (Edinburgh of The Seven Seas)British Territory of TRISTAN DA CUNHA Group of Islands (en)  (Edinburgh of The Seven Seas)
UBANGI-SHARI-CHAD
UBANGI-SHARI-CHAD Colony [French Sudan]  (Fort of Possel)Colonie de l´OUBANGUI-CHARI-TCHAD (fr)  (Fort-de-Possel)
UGANDA
UGANDA Colony  (Entebbe)UGANDA Colony (en)  (Entebbe)

61 Territories & Dependencies



International Organisations or Groupings (selective list)


BRITISH WEST AFRICA
Organisation
BRITISH WEST AFRICAN Territories  (Lagos + Freetown + Bathurst + Akra + Kumasi)BRITISH WEST AFRICAN Territories (en)  (Lagos + Freetown + Bathurst + Akra + Kumasi) King Edward VII
EAST AFRICA AND UGANDA
Organisation
EAST AFRICA AND UGANDA Protectorates  (Nairobi)EAST AFRICA AND UGANDA Protectorates (en)  (Nairobi) King Edward VII
MOROCCO-AMERICA
Organisation
MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship  (Rabat + Washington-District of Columbia)MOROCCAN-AMERICAN Treaty of Friendship (en) + Mueahadat al-Sadaqat AL-MAGHRIBAT AL-´AMRIKIA : معاهدة الصداقة المغربية الأمريكية (ar)  (Ar-Ribat + Washington-District of Columbia) Chiefs of States
ORIENTAL ORTHODOXISM
Organisation
Old Oriental Churches : ORIENTAL ORTHODOX Churches  (Alexandria + Echmiadzin)AREVELYAN UGHGHAP´ARR yekeghets´iner : ԱՐևԵԼՅԱՆ ՈՒՂՂԱՓԱՌ եկեղեցիներ (hy) + Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ (cop)  (Iskindireyya + Echmiadzin) Pope Cyril V (eg)
PAN-AFRICA
Organisation
PAN-AFRICAN Conference  (London)PAN-AFRICAN Conference (en)  (London) Henry Sylvester-Williams (uk)

5 Organisations & Groupings (selective list)

ethnia.org
   
Notes:


   ethnia.org aims to find the countries, territories, governments, administrative divisions and main international organisations that have existed during the 20th century.
   Current depth of investigation: . [red: country considered completed, rose: 1 level yet to complete, white: 2 levels yet to complete]
   For an idea on how was built the site, see the following documentary link of wikipedia [fr] : Modèle:Infobox


 General Internet Sources

   * Base géographique, Archives nationales d'outre-mer (FR). For the administrative divisions of the former French dependencies.
   * Centennia Historical Atlas Software, ed. Centennia (US). For Europe, North Africa and Middle East historical maps.
   * Drapeaux d'Origine & d'Inspiration Françaises - DO&IF, SFV (FR). For French colonial flags.
   * Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International (US). For languages codes.
   * Flags Of The World - FOTW, Rob Raeside (CA). For the current and historic flags of the world.
   * GeoNames, Geonames (CH). Geographical names database.
   * Google Books, Google (US). Online library used for specific sources.
   * Herald Dick Magazine, Herald Dick (FR). For some current and historic arms.
   * Heraldry of the World, by Ralf Hartemink (NL). For local emblems and arms.
   * L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, by Jacques Leclerc, University of Laval (CA). For national linguistic policies.
   * National Arms and Emblems - Past and Present, by Hubert de Vries (NL). For historic national emblems and arms.
   * Numismondo - World Printed Money Picture Catalog, by Garry Saint, Esquire (US). For national currencies.
   * Omniatlas - Interactive atlas of World History, by Rick Westera (NZ). For some geopolitical maps.
   * Perry-Castañ:eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin (US). For some historical maps.
   * Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer (NL). For historical regional demographies and areas.
   * Portale Storia, by Giovanni Fontana (IT). For photos of rulers.
   * ReliefWeb, by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). For maps of some administrative divisions.
   * Rulers.org, by Benjamin Schemmel (DE). For photos of rulers.
   * Statoids, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The World Factbook, ed. Central Intelligence Agency (US). For the general data and profiles of the current countries.
   * United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations (UNO). For the United Nations Missions.
   * Vexilla Mundi, by Mello Luchtenberg (NL). For flags of the world.
   * Vexillographia, by Viktor Lomantsov (RU). For flags of Russia and Soviet Union.
   * Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation (US). Free-use pictures.
   * Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation (US). For general data, maps, sources, pictures.
   * World Heritage Centre, (UNESCO). For the selected photos of the countries.
   * World History at KMLA, by Alexander Ganse (DE). For historical maps and links by country.
   * World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon (US). Main source for the historical polities and their rulers.

 General Printed References

   * Atlas des empires and other books of Gérard Chaliand, ed. Payot (FR). General historical geopolitic data.
   * Atlas of the World's Languages, ed. Routledge (UK). Most complete world list of languages and dialects.
   * Flags Through the Ages and Accross the World, by Whitney Smith, ed. McGraw (US). Flags of the world.
   * Fragments d'Europe, by Michel Foucher, ed. Fayard (FR). For the post-Soviet Union polities.
   * L'État du Monde, ed. La Découverte (FR). Yearly geopolitic cover of the world.
   * Quid, by Dominique Frémy, ed. Plon (FR). Yearly encyclopedia that was useful for countries data.
   * Statoids printed version, by Gwillim Law (US). For historical administrative subdivisions.
   * The Times Atlas of the World, ed. Times Atlas (UK). Periodical atlas of the world with its supplementary list of administrative subdivisions.
   * World Christian Encyclopedia, by David B. Barrett, ed. Oxford University Press (UK). For world religious groups but also ethnological data. First inspiring source of Ethnia.org website's look.
   * World Paper Money, ed. Krause (US). For historical currencies.

    + the other sources are added according to the consulted entity.

 




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